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UB-TAH SUMMER INSTITUTE FIELDTRIP DAY 1 (Under construction subject to change)
MONDAY, JULY14, 2008
Educational Material/Non Commercial

ITINERARY/LINKS:
Monday, July 14, 2008
Tuesday, July 15, 2008
Wednesday, July 16, 2008
Thursday, July 17, 2008
Friday, July 18, 2008
Saturday, July 19, 2008

* UB-TAH RECOMMENDATIONS*
Every evening or morning we will share our learning experiences
Support Readings:
U.S. History, The West Timeline
Utah History and Ute History Timeline

Wyoming History Timeline
Plains Indians History Timeline
South Dakota History Timeline
Nebraska History Timeline
Core Curriculum
Suggested Primary Source:
Indian Affairs Laws and Treaties

Time

Event Stop Pictures
       
5:30AM Bus Leaves from Roosevelt, Utah
USU Uintah Basin Parking Lot

Resources:
- Ute Collection of Pictures and Resources
- Ute History

Core Curriculum K-4 Standards
Core Curriculum K-5-12 Standards
Core Curriculum Historical Thinking K-5-12
Utah Core Curriculum K3-6 (New Core Curriculum)
Utah Core Curriculum K 7-12

History of Roosevelt, Utah:
"In 1905, by an act of Congress, the unallotted land of the Ute Indian reservation was opened to homesteading. Several thousand hopeful twentieth-century pioneers congregated in Provo and Grand Junction with the hope of successfully drawing lots for a homestead in a fertile region of the soon-to-be-opened lands. Throughout the fall and winter of 1905-06 the settlers came to the Uinta Basin. The town of Roosevelt was founded in early 1906 when Ed Harmston turned his homestead claim into a townsite and laid out plots. His wife named the prospective town in honor of the president of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt. Within a short time a store, a post office, and the Dry Gulch Irrigation Company were in business in the new town. In 1907, the Harmstons donated two acres of ground for the town's citizens to built a school. The first class had about fifteen pupils, who had to provide books from their homes. Roosevelt soon became the economic center for the area, eclipsing Myton and Duchesne.

Roosevelt is situated on U.S. Highway 40 in the northeast corner of the state, south of the Uinta Mountains, at an elevation of 5,250 feet. The town was incorporated at a mass meeting of forty-four citizens on 21 February 1913. From 1906 to 1914 Roosevelt was in Wasatch County, but in 1914 Duchesne County was formed from part of Wasatch County, and, as the largest town in the county, Roosevelt anticipated becoming the county seat. However, when the total county-wide vote came in, the seat went to Duchesne. Roosevelt is today home to approximately 3,500 people but serves as the business center for several times that number from the many small towns and farming areas that surround the town. Roosevelt has become the region's educational center with Union High School, Uintah Basin Area Technology Center, and Utah State University's Uintah Basin Education Center all located there. Roosevelt is also home of the only hospital in the county, Duchesne County Hospital. The economy of Roosevelt is based on agriculture and the oil industry. Pennzoil Refinery is the largest single employer in the city.

The UBIC (Uintah Basin Industrial Convention) is Roosevelt's annual celebration. What started in the early part of the century as a yearly display of the latest in farming and industrial technology has developed into a yearly gala complete with parade, talent show, concerts, and dances.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the dominant religious denomination in Roosevelt, with two stakes centered in town; but the community also boasts Roman Catholic, Christian Assembly of God, Baptist, Jehovah's Witness, and other smaller denomination congregations. Located near the Uintah/Ouray Indian Reservation headquarters of Fort Duchesne, Roosevelt is a multicultural and polyethnic community, with Caucasians and Native Americans being the most numerous."

Author: John D. Barton
Source: University of Utah, Media Collection
Educational Material/Non Commercial
 
  Utah Map
 
5:45AM Leaving Roosevelt, Utah    
  Passing Fort Duchesne, Utah

Resources:
- Ute Collection of Pictures and Resources
- Ute History


Core Curriculum K-4 Standards
Core Curriculum K-5-12 Standards
Core Curriculum Historical Thinking K-5-12
Utah Core Curriculum K3-6 (New Core Curriculum)
Utah Core Curriculum K 7-12


History of Fort Duchesne, Utah:
"Fort Duchesne was established by Major Frederick William Benteen on 20 August 1886, on a site selected by General George Crook, and General Crook soon took command of the new fort. Construction began in October 1886 and the reservation was officially designated by President Cleveland in September 1887. The fort continued to serve, with an average detachment of 250 men, until its closure in September 1912. Remnants of the fort still exist.

Fort Duchesne was established to replace Fort Thornburgh in the Uinta Basin, which had been abandoned by the U.S. Army during the winter of 1884-85. An outbreak of inter-band warfare among the Utes during the winter of 1885-86 once more raised the question of placing a fort in the basin. The Department of the Interior and the War Department each sent investigators to the area who recommended the establishment of a permanent fort. Crook selected the site in August 1886; it was three miles above the junction of the Uintah and Duchesne rivers and midway between the Whiterocks agency and Ouray agency headquarters.

Major Benteen led two troops of the Ninth Cavalry from Fort McKinney, Wyoming, and a Captain Duncan led four companies of infantry from Fort Steele, Wyoming, onto the Ute Reservation to establish the fort. The cavalry troops Benteen led into the Uinta Basin were a detachment of the Ninth, which was a Black cavalry unit that served on the Uintah frontier for twelve years. With the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, the Ninth was sent to Cuba in 1898. The soldiers of the Ninth were highly decorated during that war, and were among the men who followed Colonel Theodore Roosevelt up San Juan Hill.

While Benteen's men reached the fort site without incident, Duncan's infantry barely escaped disaster. As Duncan's men prepared to take a shortcut, a Ute policeman rode up on a well lathered horse and informed Duncan that nearly three hundred Utes lay in ambush for his men. Duncan decided to march via the longer, regularly traveled road, and arrived at the fort site without incident.

When the combined forces arrived at the fort site, they were confronted by a force of 700 Utes. The soldiers quickly threw up a picket line and began to dig defensive trenches. These proved to be unnecessary when the Utes became convinced that the army would not attack them as long as they remained passive. By October, the soldiers had settled into the routine and business of the camp and its construction.

President Grover Cleveland officially designated the six square miles that comprised the fort reservation on 1 September 1887. During the summer of 1887, the troops spent approximately $22,800 on construction of the fort. This included the construction of officers' and enlisted men's quarters, a commissary, a storehouse, and a hospital, all of adobe brick. Establishment of Fort Duchesne caused the War Department to again evaluate the need for the string of small western forts. Fort Steele was abandoned in 1886 when the troops left for Uintah County, and Fort Bridger was abandoned in 1890. Fort Duchesne was designated to guard the Indian frontier in eastern Utah, western Colorado, and southwestern Wyoming.

Fort Duchesne declined in use from 1890 to 1910. In 1893 the four infantry companies were removed to Fort Douglas. By 1909 there was only one company of cavalry left. In 1910 the inspecting officer of the U.S. Army "found no military reason why Fort Duchesne, Utah should be continued as a military post." On 13 September 1912 Troop M of the First Cavalry, the last remaining unit at the reservation, left Fort Duchesne for Fort Boise, Idaho. The Indian Service consolidated its Uintah and Ouray operations at Fort Duchesne after the fort's abandonment by the army. The buildings that had been constructed to control the Indians were at last used to assist them."

See: Thomas G. Alexander and Leonard S. Arrington, "The Utah Military Frontier, 1872-1912: Forts Cameron, Thornburgh, and Duchesne," Utah Historical Quarterly 32 (Fall 1964); June Lyman and Norma Denver, compilers, Ute People: An Historical Study (1970); Couben and Geneva Wright, "Indian White Relations in the Uintah Basin," Utah Humanities Review 2 (October 1948).

Author: David L. Schirer
Source: University of Utah, Media Collection
Educational Material/Non Commercial

 
  Ute Map

Green River

Dominguez and Escalante Map


Utah Indian Reservations
Map
 

6:30AM Leaving Vernal, Utah
USU Parking Lot in Vernal

Morning Meeting/Questions/Lesson Plan
UB-TAH Surveys for Every Lecture
Summary of the Day

Core Curriculum K-4 Standards
Core Curriculum K-5-12 Standards
Core Curriculum Historical Thinking K-5-12
Utah Core Curriculum K3-6 (New Core Curriculum)
Utah Core Curriculum K 7-12


Lecturer: John Barton, Historian

History of Vernal, Utah:
"Vernal, Uintah County's largest city, is located in eastern Utah near the Colorado State Line, and 175 miles east of Salt Lake City. It is bordered on the north by the Uinta Mountains, one of the few mountains ranges in the world which lie in an east-west rather than the usual north to south direction. The Book Cliff Mountains lie to the south, and Blue Mountain to the east, while Vernal itself lies in Ashley Valley, named in honor of William H. Ashley, an early fur trader who entered this area in 1825 by floating down the Green River in a bull boat made of animal hides.

Vernal, unlike the majority of Utah towns, was not settled initially by Mormon pioneers. Brigham Young sent a scouting party to Uinta Basin in 1861 and received word back the area was good for nothing but nomad purposes, hunting grounds for Indians and "to hold the world together." That same year, President Abraham Lincoln set the area aside as the Uintah Indian Reservation. Captain Pardon Dodds was appointed Indian agent for this reservation.

When Dodds retired, he moved Ashley Valley to raise livestock, along with agency workers, Morris Evans and John Blankenship. They arrived on 14 February 1873 and settled on Ashley Creek. Dodds built the first cabin in the valley, located about four miles northwest of present day Vernal. Many single men--trappers, prospectors, home seekers, and drifters--arrived in Ashley Valley, and some stayed. However, there wasn't a woman in the area until 1876.

The area where Vernal is now located was called the Bench, and it was described as a large barren cactus flat. The David Johnston family moved onto the Bench on 6 June 1878. It was reported that when they stopped their wagon, David took his shovel from the wagon and cleared off the cactus so the children could stand without getting cactus needles in their feet. He put the wagon on logs to keep it off the ground as there were many lizards, horned toads, scorpions, mice, and snakes in the area. Alva Hatch came to the valley looking for a place to locate in May 1878. He returned later with his family and his father, Jeremiah Hatch, along with Jeremiah's two wives. The fall of 1879 brought many settlers to the valley.

On 29 September 1879 the Meeker Massacre occurred in Colorado, with the White River Utes killing their agent, Nathan Meeker, among others. Renegade Utes then rode to Ashley Valley to convince the Uintah Utes to join them in killing all the white people in the area. Instead, the Uintah chiefs advised the settlers to "fort-up." A fort was built on the Bench due to its open expanse. Many settlers of Ashley Valley took their cabins apart, moving them to the fort site. The incident was settled, but the people remained in the fort that winter. The winter was severe, killing most of the animals. The humans also suffered. Much of their grain had been gathered from the ground, since grasshoppers had knocked it from the plant stocks; it became moldy. Diphtheria took its toll. It was March before they could get out of the valley for supplies.

Many families moved their cabins back to their homesteads, others remained in the fort. A town grew out of the fort and became known as Ashley Center. A store was opened and the residents applied for a post office. The name Ashley Center was requested, but it was too similar to the town of Ashley; therefore, the name Vernal was assigned to the community by the U.S. Postal Department.

The enterprising settlers of the valley developed a basic irrigation system that still serves the valley today. Because of the distance to a major railhead, settlers produced, manufactured, and developed about everything they needed. The leading livelihood was the cattle and sheep; milling, the production of honey, and the farming of grains and alfalfa were also important. Vernal still remains without a railroad, but the highway transportation system has enabled the city's residents to have access to most good and services..

Although the LDS Church helped set up Vernal as a town in 1884, the town wasn't incorporated until 1897. Vernal thus had the distinction of being a city without taxation for fifteen years. In 1948 Vernal had its first oil boom. From that time on it has been a boom and bust town. A thriving tourist business by Dinosaur National Monument, as well as livestock and agriculture production, help keep Vernal going during "bust" times.

Flaming Gorge Dam was built in 1964, bringing more tourists to the area. Steinaker and Red Fleet dams, built in 1962 and 1980, provided irrigation water and recreation. As with many cities, big stores have moved to the outskirts of town, but small businesses are keeping the downtown area alive. The population of Vernal City in 1990 was 6,644. Vernal, being the county seat, draws from a county population of 22,211 and also from western Colorado."

Author: Doris K. Burton
Source: University of Utah, Media Collection
Educational Material/Non Commercial

 

Yes Ute Map

Green River

Dominguez and Escalante Map


Utah Indian Reservations
Map
 

7:30AM Flaming George, Utah (44 mi from vernal)
Crossing the Dam

Lecture:
Lecture:
 

Core Curriculum K-4 Standards
Core Curriculum K-5-12 Standards
Core Curriculum Historical Thinking K-5-12
Utah Core Curriculum K3-6 (New Core Curriculum)
Utah Core Curriculum K 7-12

History of Flaming George, Utah:
"Just below [Henry's Fork] we entered the mouth of the first canyon and encamped amid the cottonwood trees surrounded by bluffs 1200 ft. high and on one side nearly perpendicular. It is the grandest scenery I have found in the mountains and I am delighted with it. . . . The river winds like a serpent through . . . nearly perpendicular cliffs . . . but instead of rapids it is deep and calm as a lake." George Bradley, one of John Wesley Powell's 1869 crew, was not the first, nor would he be the last, to be impressed with the canyons of the upper Green River. About sixty river miles below the town of Green River, Wyoming, the Green entered a series of canyons that were of rare beauty, and yet were largely unknown except to Indians, outlaws, and river runners.

First was Flaming Gorge, named by Powell for the brilliant, flaming red of its rocks. Here was supposedly the site of the legendary "Green River Suck," said by early river runners to be a cataract that continued for "six or eight miles, making a sheer descent . . . of upward of two hundred and fifty feet." It didn't exist, but it made a good story. After only a couple of miles, Flaming Gorge gave way to two short canyons in quick succession: Horseshoe Canyon and Kingfisher Canyon. The former was a long, U-shaped bend; the canyon walls here were of buff-colored Weber Sandstone, which contrasted sharply with the predominant red shades. Kingfisher Canyon was named by Powell for the many kingfishers "playing about the streams." Sheep Creek entered the river in the middle of Kingfisher Canyon; Powell called it, predictably enough, Kingfisher Creek. After Beehive Point (named for the many swallows who nested there) and Hideout Flat, the river entered Red Canyon.

Red Canyon was the longest of the canyons of the upper Green, and it was also the roughest. In the three short canyons above there was only occasional fast water; in Red Canyon there were real rapids. First and most notable was Ashley Falls, where house-sized boulders had fallen from the left wall, blocking the river. In 1825, when William Ashley and his band of trappers were floating the Green, they portaged their skin boats around the boulders. Ashley painted "ASHLEY 1825" on the cliff above the rapid, and it was visible well into the twentieth century. Although many early river travelers portaged the spot, the rapid looked worse than it was. There was an easy chute on the right at almost any water level; the Todd-Page party of 1926 floated it in their cork life jackets. After Ashley Falls there were many more rapids, including one that cost William Manly and his men their boat in 1849, forcing them to make dugout canoes to continue their voyage to California. When a prospector named Hook drowned in Red Canyon in 1869 trying to follow John Wesley Powell, the Green's reputation as a deadly river was secure for another fifty years.

With time, however, as Ellsworth Kolb wrote, "unreasonable fear of the rapids gave way to a reasonable respect." Cal Giddings, who kayaked the river in the 1950s, remembered a much different river than Powell and Manly had seen: "One characteristic of those canyons--[they] are probably the most ideal places for beginning river runners to get going. They were fairly big waves [but] easy and straightforward. It was very beautiful."

Another notable feature of the canyons was the wildlife and the vegetation. Unlike the sagebrush flats upstream and the deserts downstream, these were mountain canyons, cut right through the heart of the Uintas. Ponderosa pines and willows fringed beaches of white sand; in the bigger bottoms stood stately old cottonwoods. There was no tamarisk. In a number of places, clear, cold mountain streams entered the main canyon, full of native trout. Big squawfish and humpback chub (both now almost extinct) lazed in the eddies. Other wildlife was plentiful, too. Buzz Holmstrom ran the canyons solo in 1937, and in 1938 came back with Amos Burg and ran all the rapids on both the Green and the Colorado (becoming the first to do so). He wrote: "Flaming Gorge, Horseshoe, and Kingfisher canyons were short and rapid-free, filled with sunshine and songs of countless birds, and with the call of geese and ducks high overhead. Many deer and beaver could be seen along the tree-lined shores." There were (besides kingfishers and other birds) deer, rabbits, marmots, bobcats, black bears, and an occasional cougar.

In 1956 Arch Dam Constructors, a consortium of western construction companies, began work on a Flaming Gorge Dam, a component of the Colorado River Storage Project. The dam, about three miles downstream from Ashley Falls, was completed in 1963. It is almost 600 feet high; the resulting reservoir backs up to within five miles of the town of Green River. The wildlife and the trees are gone. Flaming Gorge Reservoir is now a "playground for millions," with fishing, boating, and water-skiing. Below the dam, literally thousands of people now run the remaining fifteen miles of Red Canyon. The wait for a launch is sometimes two hours. That pressure, and the conflict with trout fishermen for the clear, cold water and splashing rapids below the dam, has caused the Forest Service to consider implementing a permit system.

"Ah Well," as Major Powell said, "we may conjecture many things." Better to remember the canyons as they were; to remember that there was once a river beneath those cold, green waters. Ralf Woolley, a usually reserved engineer, was moved to write in 1922: "In places the solid rock walls are almost vertical and rise several hundred feet above the river. . . . The river winding its way between the walls form(s) a constantly changing panorama. . . . The river is like a placid lake, and the beautifully colored canyon walls with their green trees clinging to the slopes are perfectly reflected in the river as in a huge mirror."

Author: Roy Webb
Source: www.onlineutah.com/flaminggorgehistory.shtml
Educational Material/Non Commercial
 

No Ute Map

Utah Indian Reservations
Map
  Fires in Flaming George Short Lecture
 
No  
  Crossing from Utah into Wyoming No  
8:45AM Rock Springs, Wyoming (68.8 mi)

Core Curriculum K-4 Standards
Core Curriculum K-5-12 Standards
Core Curriculum Historical Thinking K-5-12
Utah Core Curriculum K3-6 (New Core Curriculum)
Utah Core Curriculum K 7-12


History of Rock Springs:
"The Rock Springs massacre (also known as the Rock Springs riot) occurred on September 2, 1885 in the present-day United States (U.S.) city of Rock Springs, Wyoming, in Sweetwater County. The riot, between Chinese immigrant miners and white, mostly immigrant, miners, was the result of racial tensions and an ongoing labor dispute over the Union Pacific Coal Department's policy of paying Chinese miners lower wages than white miners. When the rioting ended, at least 28 Chinese miners were dead and 15 were wounded. Rioters burned 75 Chinese homes resulting in approximately US$150,000 in property damage.

Tension between whites and Chinese immigrants in the late 19th century American West was particularly high, especially in the decade preceding the violence. The massacre in Rock Springs was the violent outburst of years of anti-"coolie" sentiment in the United States. The 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act suspended Chinese immigration for ten years, but not before thousands of immigrants came to the American West.

Most Chinese immigrants to Wyoming Territory took jobs with the railroad at first, but many ended up employed in coal mines owned by the Union Pacific Railroad. As Chinese immigration increased, so did anti-Chinese sentiment from whites. The Knights of Labor, one of the foremost voices against Chinese immigrant labor, formed a chapter in Rock Springs in 1883, and most rioters were members of that organization.[1] No connection was ever established between the riot and the national Knights of Labor organization.

In the immediate aftermath of the riot, federal troops were deployed in Rock Springs. They escorted the surviving Chinese miners, most of whom had fled to Evanston, Wyoming, back to Rock Springs a week after the riot. Reaction came swiftly from the era's publications. In Rock Springs, the local newspaper endorsed the outcome of the riot, while in other Wyoming newspapers, support for the riot was limited to sympathy for the causes of the white miners.[2] The massacre in Rock Springs touched off a wave of anti-Chinese violence, especially in the Puget Sound area of Washington Territory."

Source: The Chinese Massacre at Rock Springs, Wyoming Territory, September 2, 1885, Boston: Franklin Press – Rand Avery and Co., 1886
Educational Material/Non Commercial
 
No Wyoming Map

Indian Reservations and Federal Lands in Wyoming
Map

11:45AM
to
1:00PM
 
American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming
2111 Willett Drive
Centennial Complex
University of Wyoming
Laramie, WY 82071
Phone: 307.766.4114
E-Mail: ahc@uwyo.edu
 
Core Curriculum K-4 Standards
Core Curriculum K-5-12 Standards
Core Curriculum Historical Thinking K-5-12
Utah Core Curriculum K3-6 (New Core Curriculum)
Utah Core Curriculum K 7-12


Lecture:

"The American Heritage Center (AHC) is UW’s archives, rare books, and manuscripts repository. Most universities have special collections. Few have special collections as extensive and significant as the American Heritage Center. More importantly, few universities have special collections as welcoming and accessible to undergraduate and graduate students. Not a dusty attic or an exclusive sanctuary, the AHC is a welcoming, lively, place where both experts and novices engage with the original sources of history.

The opportunity to do hands-on, primary source research at the AHC, with assistance from expert reference archivists and rare book curators, is one of the ways UW offers personalized, connected education. Students have the opportunity to work with collections of international importance- last year scholars and other researchers from 48 states and 21 nations used the AHC’s collections. Recent documentaries on PBS’s American Experience and on the History Channel have featured AHC collections.

The AHC’s collections are of interest to far more than history majors. Last year students from courses in 16 departments--African-American Studies, American Indian Studies, American Studies, Anthropology, Art, Geography and Recreation, History, the Lab School, English, Music, Nursing, Pharmacy, Secondary Education, Sociology, University Studies, Women’s Studies--did research in the American Heritage Center. The AHC, in fact, is used more actively by university students than similar repositories at Yale, Harvard, and Princeton.

AHC collections go beyond Wyoming’s or the region’s borders and support a wide range of research and teaching activities in the humanities, sciences, arts, business, and education. Major areas of collecting include Wyoming and the American West, the mining and petroleum industries, U.S. politics and world affairs, environment and natural resources, journalism, transportation, the history of books, and 20th century entertainment such as popular music, radio, television, and film.

The AHC’s mission is to make this material a visible, vital, and accessible resource for students, scholars, and the public. We are housed in an internationally acclaimed piece of architecture, designed by Antoine Predock, that opened in 1993--the Centennial Complex houses both the American Heritage Center and the University Art Museum.:

Source: American Heritage center Website. www.uwyo.edu/ahc
Phone: (307/766-4114), visit (2111 Willett Drive, Laramie, WY)

Educational Material/Non Commercial
 
Yes
 
 
  LUNCH (In the bus)
 
   
1:00PM Leaving Laramie, WY No  
1:00PM Laramie City, Wyoming

Core Curriculum K-4 Standards
Core Curriculum K-5-12 Standards
Core Curriculum Historical Thinking K-5-12
Utah Core Curriculum K3-6 (New Core Curriculum)
Utah Core Curriculum K 7-12


"In 1866, planners of the transcontinental railroad chose a route through southern Wyoming. For a while, the route closely followed the Overland Trail, south of present-day Laramie. Congress chose the site of an Overland stage station to place a fort to protect the railroad workers; it was named Fort Buford, but the name was changed to Fort Sanders in 1867. Laramie city was sited a few miles north of the fort.

Like most towns in southern Wyoming, Laramie began as an "end of the tracks" town. As the tracks approached, numerous tent houses and cabins were built so that a fair-sized population was in place when the first train came in.

The first train entered Laramie on May 10, 1868. The Ivinson family, Edward, Jane, their daughter Margaret (Maggie) and Jane's maid were on it. Mr. Ivinson had constructed a two-story building on what is now Second Street with a store on the ground floor and living quarters above. Several permanent buildings were raised that first summer.

The first summer was turbulent, with little or no effective law enforcement. In June, Melville C. Brown was elected mayor, but he resigned after three weeks due to intimidation by the lawless element. In the fall, a vigilante committee drove out the worst of the outlaws (a few hangings helped!) and the town settled down. One member of that vigilante committee was N. K. Boswell, who became the first sheriff in Albany County.

By autumn, Laramie had a school, churches, stores and many permanent residents. Although it was a railroad town, many businesses started, including rolling mills, a tie treatment plant, a brick yard, a slaughter house, a brewery, a glass blowing plant, a plaster mill, and others. Laramie was also one of the first towns west of the Mississippi to have an electric plant, which was built in 1886 and provided electricity to individuals and businesses who subscribed to the company.

Wyoming was organized as Wyoming Territory in 1869, and a Territorial Legislature was established. During that first legislative session, the property rights of married women were protected. A law was passed guaranteeing women equal consideration with men for teaching positions. Most importantly, the territorial legislature passed a general women's suffrage bill on December 10, 1869. In 1870, Wyoming became the first place in the United States where women could vote in every election.

Laramie was the first town to hold a municipal election, on September 6, 1870. So, the first woman who voted in the United States was a Laramie resident; she is believed to be seventy-year-old Mrs. Louisa Swain. Laramie also had the first jury upon which women served - in March and April of 1870. Women were called again in Laramie in 1871. While none of the women's cases were overturned (most of the defendants were found guilty), there was much scandal and attention paid to the women. In fact, those first juries with women became the last for many years.

In 1886, Territorial Governor F. E. Warren provided for the establishment of the University of Wyoming; it was to be in Laramie. The University of Wyoming graduated its first class before Wyoming became a state on July 10, 1890."

Source: http://www.laramiemuseum.org/LaramieHistory.html
Educational Material/Non Commercial

 
No  
3:15PM Fort Laramie National Historic Site, Wyoming

Core Curriculum K-4 Standards
Core Curriculum K-5-12 Standards
Core Curriculum Historical Thinking K-5-12
Utah Core Curriculum K3-6 (New Core Curriculum)
Utah Core Curriculum K 7-12


"Fort Laramie National Historic Site, located in present-day Goshen County, Wyoming in the United States, was a significant 19th century trading post and later a military outpost of the United States Army. Founded in the 1830s during the fur trade, it was taken over by the Army in 1849 and emerged as one most important centers of white settlement in the American West. During the middle 19th century, it was a primary stopping point on the Oregon Trail and the Mormon Trail and was, along with Bent's Fort on the Arkansas River, the most significant economic hub of white commerce in the region. Many of the Army's military campaigns in the Indian Wars were conducted from the headquarters at the fort, and it gave its name to two treaties, the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851) and the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868); each was an important agreement between whites and Native Americans regarding white settlement. Decommissioned and abandoned in August of 1889, the fort contains historic military structures on its grounds, which are operated by the National Park Service.

Grounds of Fort LaramieThe fort is located along the lower Laramie River near its mouth on the North Platte River, across the river from the modern town of Fort Laramie in Goshen County, Wyoming. The Army took over the fort in the late 1840s largely to supply and protect emigrants along the Emigrant Trail. During the 1850s, relative peaceful relations between the whites and the Native Americans meant that the fort served mainly as a supply post. During the increasing strife of the 1860s, the fort took on a more military posture. In the late 1860s, the fort was the primary staging ground for the United States in the Powder River Country during Red Cloud's War. The resultant peace agreement was known as the Treaty of Fort Laramie. After the completion of the transcontinental railroad, the fort's importance decreased rapidly until it was decommissioned in 1890.


Source: Fort Laramie Website
 
Yes  
??? Reading the Treaty of Laramie in 1868, Wyoming

Fort Laramie Treaty, 1868
ARTICLES OF A TREATY MADE AND CONCLUDED BY AND BETWEEN:


Lieutenant General William T. Sherman, General William S. Harney, General Alfred H. Terry, General O. O. Augur, J. B. Henderson, Nathaniel G. Taylor, John G. Sanborn, and Samuel F. Tappan, duly appointed commissioners on the part of the United States, and the different bands of the Sioux Nation of Indians, by their chiefs and headmen, whose names are hereto subscribed, they being duly authorized to act in the premises.

ARTICLE I.
From this day forward all war between the parties to this agreement shall for ever cease. The government of the United States desires peace, and its honor is hereby pledged to keep it. The Indians desire peace, and they now pledge their honor to maintain it.

If bad men among the whites, or among other people subject to the authority of the United States, shall commit any wrong upon the person or property of the Indians, the United States will, upon proof made to the agent, and forwarded to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at Washington city, proceed at once to cause the offender to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States, and also reimburse the injured person for the loss sustained.

If bad men among the Indians shall commit a wrong or depredation upon the person or property of nay one, white, black, or Indian, subject to the authority of the United States, and at peace therewith, the Indians herein named solemnly agree that they will, upon proof made to their agent, and notice by him, deliver up the wrongdoer to the United States, to be tried and punished according to its laws, and, in case they willfully refuse so to do, the person injured shall be reimbursed for his loss from the annuities, or other moneys due or to become due to them under this or other treaties made with the United States; and the President, on advising with the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, shall prescribe such rules and regulations for ascertaining damages under the provisions of this article as in his judgment may be proper, but no one sustaining loss while violating the provisions of this treaty, or the laws of the United States, shall be reimbursed therefor.

ARTICLE II.
The United States agrees that the following district of country, to wit, viz: commencing on the east bank of the Missouri river where the 46th parallel of north latitude crosses the same, thence along low-water mark down said east bank to a point opposite where the northern line of the State of Nebraska strikes the river, thence west across said river, and along the northern line of Nebraska to the 104th degree of longitude west from Greenwich, thence north on said meridian to a point where the 46th parallel of north latitude intercepts the same, thence due east along said parallel to the place of beginning; and in addition thereto, all existing reservations of the east back of said river, shall be and the same is, set apart for the absolute and undisturbed use and occupation of the Indians herein named, and for such other friendly tribes or individual Indians as from time to time they may be willing, with the consent of the United States, to admit amongst them; and the United States now solemnly agrees that no persons, except those herein designated and authorized so to do, and except such officers, agents, and employees of the government as may be authorized to enter upon Indian reservations in discharge of duties enjoined by law, shall ever be permitted to pass over, settle upon, or reside in the territory described in this article, or in such territory as may be added to this reservation for the use of said Indians, and henceforth they will and do hereby relinquish all claims or right in and to any portion of the United States or Territories, except such as is embraced within the limits aforesaid, and except as hereinafter provided.

ARTICLE III.
If it should appear from actual survey or other satisfactory examination of said tract of land that it contains less than 160 acres of tillable land for each person who, at the time, may be authorized to reside on it under the provisions of this treaty, and a very considerable number of such persons hsall be disposed to comence cultivating the soil as farmers, the United States agrees to set apart, for the use of said Indians, as herein provided, such additional quantity of arable land, adjoining to said reservation, or as near to the same as it can be obtained, as may be required to provide the necessary amount.

ARTICLE IV.
The United States agrees, at its own proper expense, to construct, at some place on the Missouri river, near the centre of said reservation where timber and water may be convenient, the following buildings, to wit, a warehouse, a store-room for the use of the agent in storing goods belonging to the Indians, to cost not less than $2,500; an agency building, for the residence of the agent, to cost not exceeding $3,000; a residence for the physician, to cost not more than $3,000; and five other buildings, for a carpenter, farmer, blacksmith, miller, and engineer-each to cost not exceeding $2,000; also, a school-house, or mission building, so soon as a sufficient number of children can be induced by the agent to attend school, which shall not cost exceeding $5,000.

The United States agrees further to cause to be erected on said reservation, near the other buildings herein authorized, a good steam circular saw-mill, with a grist-mill and shingle machine attached to the same, to cost not exceeding $8,000.

ARTICLE V.
The United States agrees that the agent for said Indians shall in the future make his home at the agency building; that he shall reside among them, and keep an office open at all times for the purpose of prompt and diligent inquiry into such matters of complaint by and against the Indians as may be presented for investigation under the provisions of their treaty stipulations, as also for the faithful discharge of other duties enjoined on him by law. In all cases of depredation on person or property he shall cause the evidence to be taken in writing and forwarded, together with his findings, to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, whose decision, subject to the revision of the Secretary of the Interior, shall be binding on the parties to this treaty.

ARTICLE VI.
If any individual belonging to said tribes of Indians, or legally incorporated with them, being the head of a family, shall desire to commence farming, he shall have the privilege to select, in the presence and with the assistance of the agent then in charge, a tract of land within said reservation, not exceeding three hundred and twenty acres in extent, which tract, when so selected, certified, and recorded in the "Land Book" as herein directed, shall cease to be held in common, but the same may be occupied and held in the exclusive possession of the person selecting it, and of his family, so long as he or they may continue to cultivate it.

Any person over eighteen years of age, not being the head of a family, may in like manner select and cause to be certified to him or her, for purposes of cultivation, a quantity of land, not exceeding eighty acres in extent, and thereupon be entitled to the exclusive possession of the same as above directed.

For each tract of land so selected a certificate, containing a description thereof and the name of the person selecting it, with a certificate endorsed thereon that the same has been recorded, shall be delivered to the party entitled to it, by the agent, after the same shall have been recorded by him in a book to be kept in his office, subject to inspection, which said book shall be known as the "Sioux Land Book."

The President may, at any time, order a survey of the reservation, and, when so surveyed, Congress shall provide for protecting the rights of said settlers in their improvements, and may fix the character of the title held by each. The United States may pass such laws on the subject of alienation and descent of property between the Indians and their descendants as may be thought proper. And it is further stipulated that any male Indians over eighteen years of age, of any band or tribe that is or shall hereafter become a party to this treaty, who now is or who shall hereafter become a resident or occupant of any reservation or territory not included in the tract of country designated and described in this treaty for the permanent home of the Indians, which is not mineral land, nor reserved by the United States for special purposes other than Indian occupation, and who shall have made improvements thereon of the value of two hundred dollars or more, and continuously occupied the same as a homestead for the term of three years, shall be entitled to receive from the United States a patent for one hundred and sixty acres of land including his said improvements, the same to be in the form of the legal subdivisions of the surveys of the public lands. Upon application in writing, sustained by the proof of two disinterested witnesses, made to the register of the local land office when the land sought to be entered is within a land district, and when the tract sought to be entered is not in any land district, then upon said application and proof being made to the Commissioner of the General Land Office, and the right of such Indian or Indians to enter such tract or tracts of land shall accrue and be perfect from the date of his first improvements thereon, and shall continue as long as be continues his residence and improvements and no longer. And any Indian or Indians receiving a patent for land under the foregoing provisions shall thereby and from thenceforth become and be a citizen of the United States and be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of such citizens, and shall, at the same time, retain all his rights to benefits accruing to Indians under this treaty.

ARTICLE VII.
In order to insure the civilization of the Indians entering into this treaty, the necessity of education is admitted, especially of such of them as are or may be settled on said agricultural reservations, and they, therefore, pledge themselves to compel their children, male and female, between the ages of six and sixteen years, to attend school, and it is hereby made the duty of the agent for said Indians to see that this stipulation is strictly complied with; and the United States agrees that for every thirty children between said ages, who can be induced or compelled to attend school, a house shall be provided, and a teacher competent to teach the elementary branches of an English education shall be furnished, who will reside among said Indians and faithfully discharge his or her duties as a teacher. The provisions of this article to continue for not less than twenty years.

ARTICLE VIII.
When the head of a family or lodge shall have selected lands and received his certificate as above directed, and the agent shall be satisfied that he intends in good faith to commence cultivating the soil for a living, he shall be entitled to receive seeds and agricultural implements for the first year, not exceeding in value one hundred dollars, and for each succeeding year he shall continue to farm, for a period of three years more, he shall be entitled to receive seeds and implements as aforesaid, not exceeding in value twenty-five dollars. And it is further stipulated that such persons as commence farming shall receive instruction from the farmer herein provided for, and whenever more than one hundred persons shall enter upon the cultivation of the soil, a second blacksmith shall be provided, with such iron, steel, and other material as may be needed.

ARTICLE IX.
At any time after ten years fro the making of this treaty, the United States shall have the privilege of withdrawing the physician, farmer, blacksmith, carpenter, engineer, and miller herein provided for, but in case of such withdrawal, an additional sum thereafter of ten thousand dollars per annum shall be devoted to the education of said Indians, and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall, upon careful inquiry into their condition, make such rules and regulations for the expenditure of said sums as will best promote the education and moral improvement of said tribes.

ARTICLE X.
In lieu of all sums of money or other annuities provided to be paid to the Indians herein named under any treaty or treaties heretofore made, the United States agrees to deliver at the agency house on the reservation herein named, on or before the first day of August of each year, for thirty years, the following articles, to wit:

For each male person over 14 years of age, a suit of good substantial woollen clothing, consisting of coat, pantaloons, flannel shirt, hat, and a pair of home-made socks.

For each female over 12 years of age, a flannel shirt, or the goods necessary to make it, a pair of woollen hose, 12 yards of calico, and 12 yards of cotton domestics.

For the boys and girls under the ages named, such flannel and cotton goods as may be needed to make each a suit as aforesaid, together with a pair of woollen hose for each.

And in order that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs may be able to estimate properly for the articles herein named, it shall be the duty of the agent each year to forward to him a full and exact census of the Indians, on which the estimate from year to year can be based.

And in addition to the clothing herein named, the sum of $10 for each person entitled to the beneficial effects of this treaty shall be annually appropriated for a period of 30 years, while such persons roam and hunt, and $20 for each person who engages in farming, to be used by the Secretary of the Interior in the purchase of such articles as from time to time the condition and necessities of the Indians may indicate to be proper. And if within the 30 years, at any time, it shall appear that the amount of money needed for clothing, under this article, can be appropriated to better uses for the Indians named herein, Congress may, by law, change the appropriation to other purposes, but in no event shall the amount of the appropriation be withdrawn or discontinued for the period named. And the President shall annually detail an officer of the army to be present and attest the delivery of all the goods herein named, to the Indians, and he shall inspect and report on the quantity and quality of the goods and the manner of their delivery. And it is hereby expressly stipulated that each Indian over the age of four years, who shall have removed to and settled permanently upon said reservation, one pound of meat and one pound of flour per day, provided the Indians cannot furnish their own subsistence at an earlier date. And it is further stipulated that the United States will furnish and deliver to each lodge of Indians or family of persons legally incorporated with the, who shall remove to the reservation herein described and commence farming, one good American cow, and one good well-broken pair of American oxen within 60 days after such lodge or family shall have so settled upon said reservation.

ARTICLE XI.
In consideration of the advantages and benefits conferred by this treaty and the many pledges of friendship by the United States, the tribes who are parties to this agreement hereby stipulate that they will relinquish all right to occupy permanently the territory outside their reservations as herein defined, but yet reserve the right to hunt on any lands north of North Platte, and on the Republican Fork of the Smoky Hill river, so long as the buffalo may range thereon in such numbers as to justify the chase. And they, the said Indians, further expressly agree:

1st. That they will withdraw all opposition to the construction of the railroads now being built on the plains.

2d. That they will permit the peaceful construction of any railroad not passing over their reservation as herein defined.

3d. That they will not attack any persons at home, or travelling, nor molest or disturb any wagon trains, coaches, mules, or cattle belonging to the people of the United States, or to persons friendly therewith.

4th. They will never capture, or carry off from the settlements, white women or children.

5th. They will never kill or scalp white men, nor attempt to do them harm.

6th. They withdraw all pretence of opposition to the construction of the railroad now being built along the Platte river and westward to the Pacific ocean, and they will not in future object to the construction of railroads, wagon roads, mail stations, or other works of utility or necessity, which may be ordered or permitted by the laws of the United States. But should such roads or other works be constructed on the lands of their reservation, the government will pay the tribe whatever amount of damage may be assessed by three disinterested commissioners to be appointed by the President for that purpose, one of the said commissioners to be a chief or headman of the tribe.

7th. They agree to withdraw all opposition to the military posts or roads now established south of the North Platte river, or that may be established, not in violation of treaties heretofore made or hereafter to be made with any of the Indian tribes.

ARTICLE XII.
No treaty for the cession of any portion or part of the reservation herein described which may be held in common, shall be of any validity or force as against the said Indians unless executed and signed by at least three-fourths of all the adult male Indians occupying or interested in the same, and no cession by the tribe shall be understood or construed in such manner as to deprive, without his consent, any individual member of the tribe of his rights to any tract of land selected by him as provided in Article VI of this treaty.

ARTICLE XIII.
The United States hereby agrees to furnish annually to the Indians the physician, teachers, carpenter, miller, engineer, farmer, and blacksmiths, as herein contemplated, and that such appropriations shall be made from time to time, on the estimate of the Secretary of the Interior, as will be sufficient to employ such persons.

ARTICLE XIV.
It is agreed that the sum of five hundred dollars annually for three years from date shall be expended in presents to the ten persons of said tribe who in the judgment of the agent may grow the most valuable crops for the respective year.

ARTICLE XV.
The Indians herein named agree that when the agency house and other buildings shall be constructed on the reservation named, they will regard said reservation their permanent home, and they will make no permanent settlement elsewhere; but they shall have the right, subject to the conditions and modifications of this treaty, to hunt, as stipulated in Article XI hereof.

ARTICLE XVI.
The United States hereby agrees and stipulates that the country north of the North Platte river and east of the summits of the Big Horn mountains shall be held and considered to be unceded. Indian territory, and also stipulates and agrees that no white person or persons shall be permitted to settle upon or occupy any portion of the same; or without the consent of the Indians, first had and obtained, to pass through the same; and it is further agreed by the United States, that within ninety days after the conclusion of peace with all the bands of the Sioux nation, the military posts now established in the territory in this article named shall be abandoned, and that the road leading to them and by them to the settlements in the Territory of Montana shall be closed.

ARTICLE XVII.
It is hereby expressly understood and agreed by and between the respective parties to this treaty that the execution of this treaty and its ratification by the United States Senate shall have the effect, and shall be construed as abrogating and annulling all treaties and agreements heretofore entered into between the respective parties hereto, so far as such treaties and agreements obligate the United States to furnish and provide money, clothing, or other articles of property to such Indians and bands of Indians as become parties to this treaty, but no further.

In testimony of all which, we, the said commissioners, and we, the chiefs and headmen of the Brule band of the Sioux nation, have hereunto set our hands and seals at Fort Laramie, Dakota Territory, this twenty-ninth day of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight.

N. G. TAYLOR,

W. T. SHERMAN,
Lieutenant General

WM. S. HARNEY,
Brevet Major General U.S.A.

JOHN B. SANBORN,

S. F. TAPPAN,

C. C. AUGUR,
Brevet Major General

ALFRED H. TERRY,
Brevet Major General U.S.A.


Several Indian leaders signature followed this document. In order to read the complete document please visit the following link by PBS: http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/four/ftlaram.htm

Author: PBS Website (Primary Sources)
Source: PBS Website

Educational Material/Non Commercial
 

   
5:15PM

Historical Markers, Wyoming

Core Curriculum K-4 Standards
Core Curriculum K-5-12 Standards
Core Curriculum Historical Thinking K-5-12
Utah Core Curriculum K3-6 (New Core Curriculum)
Utah Core Curriculum K 7-12

"THE GREAT SMOKE"
From all directions they came in late summer 1851--Plains Indian tribes, summoned by government officials so their chiefs could smoke the peace pipe and sign a treaty with representatives of "The Great Father." Never before had so many American Indians assembled to parley with the white man. (Estimates range from 8,000 to 12,000.) It was perhaps history's most dramatic demonstration of the Plains tribes' desire to live at peace with the whites.

The tribes had been invited to assemble at Fort Laramie, but a shortage of forage for their thousands of horses caused the parley to be moved downstream. Because some tribes had been at war for generations, most Indian camps were widely spaced to minimize contact. About 270 soldiers were present to help keep the peace. However, a spirit of friendliness prevailed.

Among those helping bring the tribes together were mountain man and trailblazer Jim Bridger and Jesuit Father Peter De Smet, the beloved "Blackrobe" who worked 50 years among the Indians.

Nebraska State Historical Society
One mile west of Morrill on U.S. 26
Scotts Bluff County
Marker 369A

THE HORSE CREEK TREATY
The treaty was proposed by former fur trader Thomas Fitzpatrick, Upper Platte Indian agent, supported by David D. Mitchell, superintendent of Indian Affairs in St. Louis. The treaty provided that the government would give the tribes $50,000 a year in goods for 50 years for damages caused by emigrants bound for Oregon, California and Utah. In return the Indians would allow free passage on the emigrant trails, permit forts to be built on their land, and pledged peaceful settlement of intertribal disputes.

Signing were such chiefs as White Antelope (Cheyenne), Little Owl (Arapaho), Big Robber (Crow) and Conquering Bear, whom the whites persuaded the Sioux to elect as head chief. Assiniboine, Mandan, Gros Ventre and Arikara chiefs also signed. The Shoshone traveled over 400 miles but were not asked to sign because they were not from the Plains.

With few exceptions, the tribes honored the treaty until 1864, when the whites' demand for land pressured the Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho into warfare, ending the hope for peace which had prompted "The Great Smoke."

Nebraska State Historical Society
One mile west of Morrill on U.S. 26
Scotts Bluff County
Marker 369B

THE HORSE CREEK TREATY - MAP
Beyond the tree line about 2 3/4 miles in front of this marker, Horse Creek flows into the North Platte River. There the treaty was signed September 17, 1851. Officially known as The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851, it is commonly called The Horse Creek Treaty.

Nebraska State Historical Society
One mile west of Morrill on U.S. 26
Scotts Bluff County
Marker 369C
Source: http://www.nebraskahistory.org/publish/markers/texts/horse_creek_treaty.htm
Educational Material/Non Commercial
 

   
??? North Plate Valley Museum Farm and Ranch Museum, Gering, NE
900 Overland Trails Road . 11th & J .
Gering, NE 69341 
Phone: 308-436-5411
E-Mail: npvm@earthlink.net


If we stop in this place we will stop only for 15-20 minutes to see the constructions outside the Museum. We have an option of doing the stop on July 15, 2008 too.
 
Yes  
7:45PM Arriving in Scottsbluff, Nebraska
(You pay for your own dinner)
Meeting Summary of the Day

 
Yes  
9:15PM Arriving in Scottsbluff, Nebraska
Double Occupancy Room

Free Accommodations/Already Booked:
Days Inn
1901 21st Ave
Hwy 26 & 21st Ave
Scottsbluff, NE, 69361 US

Phone: 308-635-3111
Fax: 308-635-7646
E-Mail: scbinn@charterinternet.com 

Free High Speed Internet
Continental Breakfast
 

Yes

 
  Support Readings:

U.S. History, The West Timeline
Utah History and Ute History Timeline

Wyoming History Timeline
Plains Indians History Timeline
South Dakota History Timeline
Nebraska History Timeline
Core Curriculum
Suggested Primary Source:
Indian Affairs Laws and Treaties

 
   
       
       

If you need information about the UB-TAH the address is: 

UB-TAH, USU Uintah Basin Extension
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E-Mail: Antonio Arce, Project Coordinator
Phone: (435) 722-1736

If you would like to collaborate in the development of this site and be an important part of the Uintah Basin Teaching American History Project (UB-TAH,) please contact us or call us (435) 722-1736

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