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UB-TAH SUMMER INSTITUTE FIELDTRIP DAY 3 (Under construction subject to change)
WEDNESDAY, JULY 16, 2008
Educational Material/Non Commercial

ITINERARY/LINKS:
Monday, July 14, 2008
Tuesday, July 15, 2008
Wednesday, July 16, 2008
Thursday, July 17, 2008
Friday, July 18, 2008
Saturday, July 19, 2008

* UB-TAH RECOMMENDATIONS*
Every evening or morning we will share our learning experiences
Support Readings:
U.S. History, The West Timeline
Utah History and Ute History Timeline

Wyoming History Timeline
Plains Indians History Timeline
South Dakota History Timeline
Nebraska History Timeline
Core Curriculum
Suggested Primary Source:
Indian Affairs Laws and Treaties

Time

Event Stop Pictures
       

7:C0AM

Open Continental Breakfast/Questions?
 

   
7:30AM Bus leaves from Custer City, South Dakota

Core Curriculum K-4 Standards
Core Curriculum K-5-12 Standards
Core Curriculum Historical Thinking K-5-12
Utah Core Curriculum K3-6 (New Core Curriculum)
Utah Core Curriculum K 7-12

History of Custer City, South Dakota:

"Although there were French fur trappers and traders in the Custer area by 1796, there was no town of Custer until August 10, 1875. On that date General George Cook persuaded the miners illegally in the area to leave until the Black Hills became opened to white settlement. Cook allowed the assembled miners to lay out and name a town and allowed seven men to remain in the area to protect their mining claims.

Thomas Hooper laid out the town one mile square with a picket rope and a pocket compass. Lots were numbered and the miners present drew for the lot they could claim when the area would be opened for settlement.

When it came to naming the town, veterans of the Civil War who had served in the Union Army suggested the name of Custer to honor the general who had made a reputation for himself. Veterans of the Confederate Army suggested the town to be named Stonewall in honor of their Civil War hero, Stonewall Jackson. A vote was taken to decide the matter. There being more Union veterans than Confederate veterans--although the number was close to half and half--the name of Custer won.

The exodus of miners in August of 1875 was short-lived. Many of them returned to the area before it was officially opened to settlement by the government. They had been lured to the area by reports from the 1874 expedition to the Black Hills and Custer's report of the finding of gold on French Creek. Custer was followed within four months by the Collins-Witcher-Gordon party of pioneers who settled near Custer's former "permanent" camp. The Gordon Stockade was built by that party and it was the magnet that drew the miners to the area in 1875. The Gordon party was evicted from their stockade in April of 1875.

Rows of ramshackle cabins mostly made from green lumber soon appeared in Custer valley at the site of the present City of Custer. The city was thriving with an estimated 10,000 population by May of 1876, when a gold strike in Deadwood Gulch caused the miners to flock to that location, there were only fourteen people left in Custer--Sam Shankland, Mr. and Mrs. H.A. Albien, Mrs. S.M. Booth, General Scott, Mr. and Mrs. Harry Wright, Mrs. Charles Hayward, Frank Peterson, William Kraus, A.B. Hughes, Abram Yerkes, Joseph Reynolds and Bob Pugh. By the end of 1876, the town's population had increased to 123 people.

Merchandise was freighted to Custer from 1876 until 1890 when the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railroad reached the town. Ox teams pulling covered freight wagons--the reason for Custer's 100-foot wide streets designed so that teams could make U-turns--gave way to the railroad which gave way to truckers in the 1940s. Early businesses by December of 1876 included the Western Stage Line (Sidney, Nebraska to Deadwood, fares $10 to $20); a hotel, the Custer House; Lee, Turner & Company, grocers; Joseph T. Bliss, general second hand store; S.M. Booth, wholesale and retail commission merchant; Harlow & Co., clothiers, hardware, grain, feed, liquors and cigars; Dr. D.W. Flick and Dr. J.W.C White, physician and surgeon.

The first baby born in Custer was a girl born May 11, 1876 to Mr. and Mrs. Charles Sasse. They moved to Deadwood and the child died in November. Sasse freighted liquor to the Black Hills. The Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage began regular runs to Custer in July of 1876. Custer's first school was taught in the summer of 1876 by Miss Carrie Scott, daughter of C.A. Scott who made the first coffin in Custer. The Scotts moved to Spearfish. The Rev. Henry Weston Smith gave the first sermon in Custer--in a saloon. He was killed that summer while on his way from Deadwood to Crook City to deliver a sermon.

By 1915 W.R. Woods had completed a telephone line in Custer, connecting eventually with the Deadwood line. Up to that time communcition was by telegraph, pony express, or horse and buggy.

Electricity was generated by the Dakota Power Company in the 1920s.

Sanitary Sewer plants replaced the gutters into which refuse, solid and liquid, was thrown into the streets prior to about 1920. Septic tanks were used by individual households. The city water mains were first of routed out logs joined with fitted ends, later with metal pipes that rusted and now with plastic pipes. Water comes from deep wells.

The city police force progressed from a lone constable to a force of four or five men until it was combined with county law enforcement in the 1970s.

Dirt was replaced by gravel on city streets by the 1915s when main street was levelled and boardwalks gave way to concrete sidewalks. Paving began in the 1940s. An airport was built in the 1940s and has steadily increased in services and facilities.

Two city parks evolved from a need for a place for farmers to have picnics when they brought produce to town in the 1930s, the removal of a feed and grain store that was falling to ruins, rerouting of French Creek, and a donation of land for the present Harbach park.

Since the 1880s Custer has had a volunteer fire department, first with hose cart and runners, then with wagon and teams and finally with hose trucks, smoke estractors, etc. For years, Leo Harbach as fire chief, guided the destiny of the department which included constant training and upgrading of methods and equipment.

Custer's early Commercial Club was replaced by the Custer County Chamber of Commerce, now the Custer Area Chamber of Commerce which promotes tourism in the city. Custer is the county seat of Custer County. Its 1881 courthouse has housed many famous trials and incidents over the past 92 years. Twenty seven years ago a new courthouse was constructed at the south side of Way Park, a legacy of a Custer County official and former miner.

Custer's population is of about 1,800. The town is a friendly place to do business in the midst of spectacular Black Hills scenery."

Author: Custer City Website
Source: Custer City Website
Educational Material/Non Commercial
 

  South Dakota Map

South Dakota Indian Reservations and Federal Lands Map
7:30AM Leaving Custer, South Dakota
 
   
7:00AM Crazy Horse Memorial
Crazy Horse Memorial
12151 Avenue of the Chiefs
Crazy Horse, SD 57730-8900
Phone 605-673-4681

Resources:
Video Available

Crazy Horse As Remembered by Charles Eastman

Core Curriculum K-4 Standards
Core Curriculum K-5-12 Standards
Core Curriculum Historical Thinking K-5-12
Utah Core Curriculum K3-6 (New Core Curriculum)
Utah Core Curriculum K 7-12


"Crazy Horse Memorial, home of the world’s largest mountain sculpture in progress, is in the Black Hills of South Dakota on U.S. Highway 16/385 just 17 miles southwest of Mount Rushmore.

The Crazy Horse Memorial mountain crew uses precision explosive engineering to carefully and safely remove and shape the rock of the mountain. Since the dedication of the face of Crazy Horse in 1998, the work has been focused on blocking out the horse's head.

A network of about a dozen benches will be cut out around the horse's head. The benches serve to block out the head to within 20 feet of the final surface of the horse's head, while providing access roads for the heavy equipment used to drill holes for loading explosives and to remove loose rock after each blast.

Sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski began the project in 1948 at the request of Lakota Chief Henry Standing Bear and other Native American elders. Korczak died in 1982. His wife, Ruth, and some members of their family continue the project, working with the nonprofit Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation.

The Memorial's visitor complex includes the 40,000 square foot Welcome Center and theaters, the Indian Museum of North America, the Native American Educational & Cultural Center, the sculptor’s log home studio and workshop, indoor and outdoor galleries, museum gift shop, restaurant and snack bar areas and expansive viewing veranda.

Many Native American artists and crafts people create their artwork and visit with guests at the Memorial during the summer season.

Author: Crazy Horse Memorial Website
Source: Crazy Horse Memorial Website
Educational Material/Non Commercial

 

Yes South Dakota Map

South Dakota Indian Reservations and Federal Lands Map
12:15PM LUNCH
 
   
1:00PM Mount Rushmore National Memorial
13000 Highway 244
Building 31, Suite 1
Keystone, SD 57751-0268
Phone: 605-574-2523
Video 1 Available

Photo Gallery Available

Resources:
- President George Washington

- President Thomas Jefferson
- President Theodore Roosevelt
- President Abraham Lincoln

- Ranger Walk to Mount Rushmore (30 minutes)
- Sculptor Gutzon Borglum
- Carving History

Core Curriculum K-4 Standards
Core Curriculum K-5-12 Standards
Core Curriculum Historical Thinking K-5-12
Utah Core Curriculum K3-6 (New Core Curriculum)
Utah Core Curriculum K 7-12


"Mount Rushmore National Memorial, near Keystone, South Dakota, is a monumental granite sculpture by Gutzon Borglum, located within the United States Presidential Memorial that represents the first 150 years of the history of the United States of America with 60-foot (18 m) sculptures of the heads of former United States presidents: George Washington (1732–1799), Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919), and Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865). The entire memorial covers 1,278.45 acres (5.17 km²) and is 5,725 feet (1,745 m) above sea level. It is managed by the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The memorial attracts approximately two million people annually.

Mount Rushmore is controversial among Native Americans because the United States seized the area from the Lakota tribe after the Black Hills War in 1876–77. The Treaty of Fort Laramie from 1868 had previously granted the Black Hills to the Lakota in perpetuity. The Lakota consider the hills sacred, although historians believe the Lakota also gained control of the hills by force, displacing the Cheyenne in 1776. Members of the American Indian Movement led an occupation of the monument in 1971, naming it "Mount Crazy Horse". Among the participants were young activists, grandparents, children and Lakota holy man John Fire Lame Deer, who planted a prayer staff atop the mountain. Lame Deer said the staff formed a symbolic shroud over the presidents' faces "which shall remain dirty until the treaties concerning the Black Hills are fulfilled."

In 2004, the first Native American superintendent of the park was appointed. Gerard Baker has stated that he will open up more "avenues of interpretation", and that the four presidents are "only one avenue and only one focus."

The Crazy Horse Memorial is being constructed elsewhere in the Black Hills to commemorate a famous Native American leader and as a response to Mount Rushmore. It is intended to be larger than Mount Rushmore and has the support of Lakota chiefs; the Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation has rejected offers of federal funds. However, this memorial is likewise the subject of controversy, especially within the Native American community.

The Monument also holds controversy in the alleged idea of an underlying theme of racial superiority legitimized by the idea of Manifest Destiny. The mountains have been carved with Borglum's choice of four presidents active during the time of the acquisition of Indian land.


Author: Mount Rushmore National Monument Website and Others
Source: Various
Educational Material/Non Commercial

 

Yes South Dakota Map

South Dakota Indian Reservations and Federal Lands Map
8:30PM Mount Rushmore Evening Program

Core Curriculum K-4 Standards
Core Curriculum K-5-12 Standards
Core Curriculum Historical Thinking K-5-12
Utah Core Curriculum K3-6 (New Core Curriculum)
Utah Core Curriculum K 7-12
No South Dakota Map

South Dakota Indian Reservations and Federal Lands Map
??? Arriving in Custer City, South Dakota
(You pay your own dinner)
 
Yes  
??? Arriving to the Motel
Double Occupancy Room

Free Accommodations/Already Booked:
Bavarian Inn
PO Box 152 Custer, SD 57730
Located 1 mile North on Hwy. 16-385
Phone:1-800-657-4312
E-mail: bavarinn@gwtc.net

Free High Speed Internet
Continental Breakfast

 

Yes

 
  Support Readings:

U.S. History, The West Timeline
Utah History and Ute History Timeline

Wyoming History Timeline
Plains Indians History Timeline
South Dakota History Timeline
Nebraska History Timeline
Core Curriculum
Suggested Primary Source:
Indian Affairs Laws and Treaties

 
   
       
       

If you need information about the UB-TAH the address is: 

UB-TAH, USU Uintah Basin Extension
987 East Lagoon (124-9)
Roosevelt, Utah 84066
E-Mail: Antonio Arce, Project Coordinator
Phone: (435) 722-1736

If you would like to collaborate in the development of this site and be an important part of the Uintah Basin Teaching American History Project (UB-TAH,) please contact us or call us (435) 722-1736

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