UB-TAH SUMMER INSTITUTE FIELDTRIP DAY 6 (Under construction subject to change)
Educational Material/Non Commercial

Monday, July 14, 2008
Tuesday, July 15, 2008
Wednesday, July 16, 2008
Thursday, July 17, 2008
Friday, July 18, 2008
Saturday, July 19, 2008

Every evening or morning we will share our learning experiences
Support Readings:
U.S. History, The West Timeline
Utah History and Ute History Timeline

Wyoming History Timeline
Plains Indians History Timeline
South Dakota History Timeline
Nebraska History Timeline
Core Curriculum
Suggested Primary Source:
Indian Affairs Laws and Treaties


Event Stop Pictures


Open Continental Breakfast/Questions?



Bus leaves from Casper, Wyoming

History of Casper City, Wyoming

"Before there were people, there was the river—the North Platte River begins its meandering journey in the mountains near Casper, running east across the Great Plains to merge with its sister river, the South Platte, to become simply the Platte River. Water, mountains, and plains were a lure from the beginning; evidence of human occupation dates back more than 12,000 years with the Clovis peoples, followed by the Folsom and the Eden Valley peoples. A mix of hunting and gathering tribes occupied the area until approximately 500 A.D., eventually morphing into Native American tribes more familiar in today's world.

The original residents of Wyoming were nomadic Plains Indians, including tribes as disparate as the Arapaho, Sioux, Cheyenne, Crow, Lakota, Blackfeet, Kiowa, Nez Perce, and Shoshone. The tribes relied on the land and the roaming buffalo herds for sustenance; when European explorers and hunters began a wholesale slaughter of the buffalo, coinciding with an interest in herding native peoples to a containment area in Oklahoma, armed conflicts escalated in the clash of cultures and interests. In 1812, fur trappers had followed beaver and buffalo populations to the northern Rockies. The Oregon Trail had been scouted out in 1823, and its ever-deepening ruts reflected the entrenched U.S. belief in its manifest destiny to expand westward.

The Western Civil War
By 1847, a network of travel routes converged at a spot just west of present-day Casper; here the Emigrant Trail crossed from the south side to the north side of the North Platte River. When the first Mormon wagon train passed through this area on its way to what would become Utah, Brigham Young arranged for a ferry to be set up for the use of future travelers. The Mormon Ferry soon faced competition as more emigrants passed that way and decided to cash in on a good idea. One entrepreneurial French-Canadian trader named John Baptiste Richard decided to build a bridge across the North Platte and charge a toll for crossing it. The area was now not just a way-station but an encampment.

Local residents established a trading post along the Emigrant Trail in 1859, taking advantage of the growing stream of wagon trains. As the local population grew along with the number of emigrants, friction developed with local tribes of Lakota, Arapaho, and Cheyenne Indians. As a result, the trading post was transformed into a fort by the military, and two pitched battles between the army and the native tribes took place in 1865. In the first conflict, Lieutenant Caspar Collins was killed while attempting to rescue another soldier. Lt. Collins' father already had a fort named after him in Colorado, so the military named the Wyoming fort "Casper" in his honor, inadvertently using a misspelling that had been transmitted by telegraph. The seeds of present-day Casper had been planted.

Black Gold, Texas Tea
Casper in 1888 was a true Wild West town; a railroad had been built through the town in an effort to ease travel to riches of gold in California and fertile land in Oregon. Isolation and lawlessness attracted a rough crowd of renegades and outlaws, and the original township developed a main street lined with saloons on one side. By necessity, the first public building in Casper was a jail. Lynchings were not an uncommon occurrence.

Oil was struck in nearby Salt Creek Field in 1889, an event that has come to define Casper as the "oil capital of the Rockies." The city was flooded with an influx of claim jumpers looking to capitalize on the promised wealth. In 1895, the first oil refinery was constructed. Oil workers known as "roughnecks" followed, along with gamblers, prostitutes and corrupt businessmen. Cattlemen went to war against the sheepmen. The local law struggled to keep up with the shenanigans of the populace, passing laws to prevent women from walking on the saloon side of Main Street and to make illegal the discharge of firearms within city limits.

Local municipal leaders were set on Casper becoming the state capital and a centerpiece of the West. As the economy continued to thrive, construction was begun on some of the tallest buildings in Wyoming during the early 20th century. But, a city that lives on oil can die on oil.
Nearly a Ghost Town
Few communities escaped the repercussions of the Great Depression, and Casper was not an exception. In 1929, the city's population diminished by 50 percent; the struggle continued until World War II spurred renewed demand for oil and gas supplies.

The city has experienced cycles of boom and bust beginning in the 1960s, riding the wave of oil and gas prices. Today, Casper is profiting from U.S. conflicts with oil-producing nations and has additionally seen the growth of more consistent industries in the areas of health care, social services and tourism. Figurative fisticuffs have taken the place of literal gunfights as the oil industry negotiates its place in a city that is increasingly conscious of its finite and infinitely beautiful natural resources."

Author: Wyoming State Historical Society
Source: Wyoming State Historical Society
Educational Material/Non Commercial

8:30AM Arriving Riverton City, Wyoming

History of Riverton City:

"Riverton is a city in Fremont County, Wyoming, United States. It is both the largest city in the county and the largest on the Wind River Indian Reservation. The city's population was 9,310 at the 2000 census. Although located on the reservation, the city is an incorporated entity of the state of Wyoming. It sits on land ceded from the reservation in 1906, a situation that often makes it subject to jurisdictional claims by the nearby Eastern Shoshone and Northern Arapaho tribes."

Author: Riverton City Website
Source: Riverton City Website
Educational Material/Non Commercial
Yes Wyoming Map

Indian Reservations and Federal Lands in Wyoming


8:30AM Wind River Indian Reservation, Utah
15 North Fork Road
P.O. Box 538
Fort Washakie , WY 82514
Phone: (307) 332-3532 / 4932

Wind River Indian Reservation Information:
"The 1.7+ million-acre Wind River Indian Reservation, established in 1864 through the Bridger-Teton Treaty with the U.S. government, is home to the Eastern Shoshone and Northern Arapaho tribes. The Wind River Indian Reservation offers visitors a cultural peek into the history of two Native American tribes who now share the beautiful wide open spaces northwest of Lander.


If you are looking to discover more about Sacajawea, the Wind River Indian Reservation is the place to go. Near Fort Washakie you will find the grave of Sacajawea, her nephew Bazil, and a memorial to her son Baptiste. Many believe she returned to her Shoshone people in Fort Washakie where she died and was buried on April 9, 1884, by the Episcopal missionary, Reverend John Roberts. While living on the Wind River Indian Reservation Sacajawea served as a translator for Chief Washakie in negotiations to establish the reservation and was often seen wearing one the peace medals given out by Lewis and Clark. Sacajawea Cemetery is located in the foothills of the Wind River Mountains where you will find the 13,569-foot Mt. Sacajawea.

Fort Washakie

Once a U.S. military establishment frequented by members of the Eastern Shoshone Tribe, Fort Washakie is now the headquarters of the tribe's government and the Bureau of Indian Affairs agency. Fort Washakie is the only military fort named for an American Indian chief. Visitors will want to visit the Shoshone Tribal Cultural Center at 31 Black Coal Street, where you will get an in-depth look into the history and culture of the Shoshone Tribe.

The Center, established in 1988, is housed in a National Registered Historic Building. Featured are exhibits of tribal cultural crafts and art, along with historical data and photographic collections. Treaty maps and agreements are displayed. Maps for self-guided tours are free, along with information about Chief Washakie and Sacajawea. You can contact the Shoshone Tribal Cultural Center at 307-332-9106 or by writing to P.O. Box 1008, Fort Washakie, WY 82514.

Chief Washakie

Located approximately ½ mile from the Shoshone Tribal Cultural Center, Chief Washakie Cemetery is the final resting place of the last chief of the Shoshone Tribe, Chief Washakie. Chief Washakie is buried in the older section of the cemetery. A large headstone marks his grave.

In 1840, Washakie became the principal chief of the Eastern Shoshone, a role he would fill until his death over sixty years later. Throughout his tenure he maintained friendly relations with the U.S. government, settlers, and other American immigrants. Washakie always placed the peace and welfare of his people above all other concerns. In the 1870s Washakie served as a military leader of over 150 Shoshone men serving with General Crook in the campaign to return Sioux and Cheyenne bands to their assigned reservations. The campaign ended with Custer's ill-fated attack at Little Big Horn in 1876, an attack which Washakie advised against.

When he died in 1900 at an age of over 100, Washakie received a full military funeral and burial, honoring his career in the U.S. Army.

St. Michael's Mission/Northern Arapaho Cultural Museum

Ethete, which means "good" in the Arapaho language, is located several miles east of Fort Washakie and is the site of St. Michael's Mission. The old buildings were once part of an Episcopal mission. Faith Hall, the large building toward the back on the side of the mission was the school building. In front of Faith Hall you will find the Northern Arapaho Cultural Museum, which houses traditional tribal artifacts."

Author: Wind river Indian Reservation Website and others
Source: Wind river Indian Reservation Website and others
Educational Material/Non Commercial
Yes Wyoming Map

Indian Reservations and Federal Lands in Wyoming

9:00AM Mountain Man Museum, Riverton, WY
412 E. Fremont Ave.
Riverton, WY 82501-4407
E-Mail: gboesch@rmisp.com


Exhibits of Wyoming wildlife including 40 full-sized mounts from the Jake Korell collection, including wolves, bears, bison, moose, elk, deer and bighorn sheep, plus smaller mammals. View a collection of historic traps dating from the early 1800s and the Mountain Man era. Native American art, gifts, local history books.

Author: Mountain Man Museum Website and others
Source: Mountain Man Museum Website and others
Educational Material/Non Commercial
Yes? Wyoming Map

Indian Reservations and Federal Lands in Wyoming


10:30AM The Museum of the American West, WY
1445 West Main Street
Lander, WY 82520
Phone: 307-335-8778
E-mail: info@amwest.org

Core Curriculum K-4 Standards
Core Curriculum K-5-12 Standards
Core Curriculum Historical Thinking K-5-12
Utah Core Curriculum K3-6 (New Core Curriculum)
Utah Core Curriculum K 7-12

History of The Museum of the American West, Wyoming:
"The Museum of the American West, the only institution which celebrates the different groups of people who utilized the critical geography of what is now central Wyoming to shape the American West.

The Pioneers and their descendants; the Eastern Shoshone; the Northern Arapaho; and other diverse cultures have inhabited for generations the valleys of the Sweetwater and Wind Rivers, beneath the jagged peaks of the Wind River Mountains and the Great South Pass.

The Museum of the American West is an umbrella for a series of museums that are planned or currently being developed at our large site. These include the Pioneer Museum, the Pushroot Living History Village, the Native Americans of the Central Plains and Rockies Museum and living history complex, and the Lander Children’s Museum.

The mission of the Museum of the American West is to collect, preserve and exhibit objects of regional and national historical significance. World-class artifact collections recount the important roles of the South Pass, Sweetwater and Wind River areas, and the resident cultures, in the expansion of the United States to the Pacific Ocean. The Museum of the American West facilitates research and promotes ongoing educational initiatives in partnership with local, national and international learning institutions."

Author: The Museum of the American West
Source: The Museum of the American West
Educational Material/Non Commercial

  Wyoming Map

Indian Reservations and Federal Lands in Wyoming

??? San Creek Riverton Massacre Trail, WY

Core Curriculum K-4 Standards
Core Curriculum K-5-12 Standards
Core Curriculum Historical Thinking K-5-12
Utah Core Curriculum K3-6 (New Core Curriculum)
Utah Core Curriculum K 7-12

San Creek Riverton Massacre Trail:
"School children will strain their arms to answer questions about the Oregon Trail or Thomas Jefferson's impossibly good deal on the Louisiana Purchase.

But mention the 1864 Sand Creek Massacre to most anyone but an Arapaho or Cheyenne Indian, and ...

A ceremony in Wyoming's capital today aims to fill in the blank on Sand Creek, one of the most horrific events in the conquest of the West by Euro-Americans.

Northern Arapaho tribal members will join state officials on the Cheyenne Depot Plaza at 3:30 p.m. to designate the Sand Creek Massacre Trail -- a 600-mile ceremonial link between the Colorado massacre site and the headquarters of the Northern Arapaho Tribe on Wyoming's Wind River Reservation.

The ceremony, which is open to the public, will feature speeches, tribal dancers and a healing ceremony. Officials also will unveil the design for the official trail highway sign.

A group of Arapaho runners is scheduled to make the roughly 10-mile journey on foot from the Colorado-Wyoming border to Cheyenne in time for the gathering.

This is part of “an educational awareness, historical remembrance and spiritual healing for one of the greatest atrocities to happen to Native American people during the development of this country,” said Gale Ridgley, a Northern Arapaho descendant of massacre survivors Lame Man and Chief Little Raven.

A bloody tale

On the morning of Nov. 29, 1864, about 500 mostly women, children and elderly Arapaho and Cheyenne were waking from sleep on the banks of Big Sandy Creek in southeastern Colorado Territory.

Both tribes were resting easy after the end of prolonged conflicts with the U.S. government. They had recently ceded their land and agreed to move to reservations in exchange for an end to war.

Assured peace, the tribes' men were away finding meat.

Nearby, Col. John Chivington prepared his 800 volunteer troops from Colorado and New Mexico for battle by instructing them, according to some accounts, to “kill and scalp all, big and little; nits make lice.”

The soldiers fell on the Indians that morning, slaughtering between 150 and 184. Fewer than a dozen soldiers died. Accounts note extreme brutality by the soldiers.

“They weren't just killed,” said Nelson White of the Northern Arapaho Business Council. “They were butchered.

“Some of the stories that was passed on was that even the ladies that were going to have newborns, the newborns were cut out and the private parts of both men and women, after the massacre, they were taken to Denver and they were paraded through,” White said.

'Shocked the nation

Newspapers initially reported a valiant victory by Chivington and his men. The true story, when it came out, made even bigger headlines and shocked the nation.

Three government investigations revealed “a foul and dastardly massacre” that included “the worst passions that ever cursed the heart of man.”

Chivington “surprised and murdered, in cold blood, the unsuspecting men, women and children of Sand Creek, who had every reason to believe they were under the protection of the United States authorities,” investigators concluded.

The massacre heightened tensions between U.S. troops and a militant Indian groups and probably contributed to retribution against non-Indian civilians.

Harold Smith, a Northern Arapaho spiritual leader, said tribal members at Sand Creek were killed and brutalized because they were Indian, much like the Jews were persecuted during the Holocaust because of who they were.

“It's basically the same thing,” Smith said.

Chivington and his men were never punished.

Quick to forget

Over time, the horror of Sand Creek faded from the public consciousness. Even some tribal members refused to talk about it.

Ridgley said he only heard whispers of the battle as a child. His grandfather eventually revealed the family connections in the 1960s.

“You don't hear about them in the school system,” he said.

Ridgley, now principal at the Arapahoe Charter High School, said his tribe still suffers from “generational trauma” inflicted by the brutal deaths of ancestors less than six generations ago. He said the suffering and other hardships in the tribe's history contribute to the Arapahos' ongoing struggles with poverty, suicide and depression.

“When you are beaten down like a dog, it carries over to generations,” he said.

In 1996, Ridgley and his brother, former Northern Arapaho Business Councilman Ben Ridgley, were selected by the tribe to work with other tribes, states and the federal government to resurrect the story of Sand Creek and honor those who died.

The decade-long effort entailed an 18-month scientific study of the massacre site and an “oral history” study that brought together the collective knowledge about the massacre passed down by tribal families.

A nation remembers

Congress adopted legislation in 2000 that formally recognized the significance of the massacre in American history.

In Wyoming, Sen. Cale Case, R-Lander, Sen. Bob Peck, R-Riverton, and the late Rep. Harry Tipton, R-Lander, pushed for a resolution to designate several sections of highway as the Sand Creek Massacre Trail. After attempts by three separate Legislatures, the measure passed both houses unanimously....."

Author: Jared Miller
Source: Star Tribune, August 16, 2006
Educational Material/Non Commercial

Yes Wyoming Map

Indian Reservations and Federal Lands in Wyoming


Bonneville Cabins Trading Post
N.42.54.020 W.108.35.299


No Wyoming Map

Indian Reservations and Federal Lands in Wyoming


??? South Pass, WY

South Pass History:
"South Pass (elevation 7550 ft) is a mountain pass on the Continental Divide in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Wyoming. The pass is located in a broad valley between the Wind River Range to the north and the Antelope Hills to the south, in southwestern Fremont County, approximately 35 miles (54 km) SSW of Lander. The pass furnishes a natural crossing point of the Rockies and has historically been the route for the Oregon Trail, California Trail, and Mormon Trail during the 19th century. The pass is a broad open saddle with prairie and sagebrush, allowing a broad and nearly level route between the Atlantic and Pacific watersheds. The Sweetwater River rises on the east side of the pass, and Pacific Creek rises on the west side.


South Pass signThe discovery of the pass as a natural crossing point of the Rockies was a significant but surprisingly difficult achievement in the westward expansion of the United States. It was unknown to the Lewis and Clark Expedition, which followed a northerly route up the Missouri River, crossing the Rockies over difficult passes in the Bitteroot Range in Montana. South Pass, by comparison, was known only to Native Americans until 1812, when Robert Stuart and six companions from the Pacific Fur Company (the Astorians) crossed the Rockies here on their return from Astoria, Oregon:

"In 1811, the overland party of Mr. Astor's expedition, under the command of Mr. Wilson P. Hunt, of Trenton, New Jersey, although numbering sixty well armed men, found the Indians so very troublesome in the country of the Yellowstone River, that the party of seven persons who left Astoria toward the end of June, 1812, considering it dangerous to pass again by the route of 1811, turned toward the southeast as soon as they had crossed the main chain of the Rocky Mountains, and, after several days' journey, came through the celebrated 'South Pass' in the month of November, 1812.

Map of southwestern Wyoming showing location of South Pass at the headwaters of the Sweetwater River.Pursuing from thence an easterly course, they fell upon the River Platte of the Missouri, where they passed the winter and reached St. Louis in April, 1813.  The seven persons forming the party were Robert McClelland of Hagerstown, who, with the celebrated Captain Wells, was captain of spies under General Wayne in his famous Indian campaign, Joseph Miller of Baltimore, for several years an officer of the U. S. Army, Robert Stuart, a citizen of Detroit, Benjamin Jones, of Missouri, who acted as huntsman of the party, Francois LeClaire, a halfbreed, and André Valée, a Canadian voyageur, and Ramsay Crooks, who is the only survivor of this small band of adventurers." (Letter of Ramsay Crooks to the Detroit free Press, June 28, 1856)

The 20th Century saw Oregon Trail boosters mark the trailway with monuments as patriotic pathways of Manifest Destiny. Ezra Meeker erected this boulder near Pacific Springs on Wyoming's South Pass in 1906.[1]Despite Stuart's meticulous journal of the trip, which was presented to Astor and President James Madison, and published in France, the knowledge of its location was not widely known, so for over a decade trappers used a longer, more northern route which included an extra mountain range and offered a shorter season for crossing. In 1824, Jedediah Smith rediscovered the pass. In 1832, Captain Benjamin Bonneville and a caravan of 110 men and 20 wagons became the first group to take wagons over the pass. In July 1836, Narcissa Whitman and Eliza Spaulding were the first pioneer women to cross South Pass. Between 1848 and 1868, it furnished the convenient crossing point for emigrants westward, most of whom followed the Sweetwater River across Wyoming to its headwaters, following the Central Route. Before the railroads offered an easier crossing in 1869, perhaps half a million would trek through South Pass.

Gold had been discovered in the gulches near the pass as early as 1842. It was not until 1867, when an ore sample was transported to Salt Lake City, that an influx of miners descended into the region. The gold rush led to the establishment of booming mining communities such as South Pass City and Atlantic City. The placer gold in the streams was exhausted quickly, however, and by 1870 the miners began leaving the region. In 1884, Emile Granier, a French mining engineer, established a hydraulic drilling operation that allowed gold mining to continue. Gold mining was revived once again in nearby Rock Creek in the 1930s. From the 1960s through 1983, a US Steel iron ore mine operated in Atlantic City.

Author: The Museum of the American West and others
Source: The Museum of the American West an others
Educational Material/Non Commercial

Yes Wyoming Map

Indian Reservations and Federal Lands in Wyoming

??? Mormon Crossing
N.42.06.468 W.109.271.99

Picture 1
Picture 2
No Wyoming Map

Indian Reservations and Federal Lands in Wyoming

??? Pony Express Trail, HWY 28, WY

To provide the fastest mail delivery between St. Joseph, Missouri, and Sacramento, California. To draw public attention to the central route in hope of gaining the million dollar government mail contract for the Central Overland California and Pikes Peak Express Company.
April 3, 1860, to late October 1861.
Relay of mail by horses and riders. The Pony Express ran day and night, summer and winter.
183 men are known to have ridden for the Pony Express during its operation of just over 18 months
Rider Qualifications:
Ad in California newspaper read: "Wanted. Young, skinny, wiry fellows. Not over 18. Must be expert riders. Willing to risk death daily. Orphans preferred." Most riders were around 20. Youngest was 11. Oldest was mid-40s. Not many were orphans. Usually weighed around 120 pounds.
Riders Pay
$100 per month.
First Riders:
Johnny Fry was first westbound rider from St. Joseph. Billy Hamilton was first eastbound driver from Sacramento.
Rider Relay:
New riders took over every 75 to 100 miles.
Horse Relay:
Riders got a fresh horse every 10 to 15 miles.
Horses traveled an average of 10 miles per hour.
400 horses purchased to stock the Pony Express route. Thoroughbreds, mustangs, pintos, and Morgans were often used.
Approximately 165 stations.
Trail Length:
Almost 2,000 miles.
St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California. Through the present day states of Kansas, Nebraska, northeast corner of Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, and California.
Once a week from April 3 to mid-June 1860. Twice a week from mid-June, to late October 1861. Departures were from both the east and the west.
10 days in summer. 12 to 16 days in winter.
Fastest Delivery:
7 days and 17 hours between telegraph lines. Lincoln's Inaugural Address.
Longest Drive:
Pony Bob Haslam rode 370 miles (Friday's Station to Smith Creek and back. This is in present-day Nevada.)
Cost of Mail:
$5.00 per 1/2 ounce at the beginning. By the end of the Pony Express, the price had dropped to $1.00 per 1/2 ounce.
William Russell, Alexander Majors, and William Waddell. The company was the Central Overland California and Pikes Peak Express Company. The Pony Express was a subsidiary of the famous freight and stage company.
Other Mail Routes:
Water route from New York to San Francisco and across Panama by pack mule. Southern or Butterfield route from St. Louis and Memphis to El Paso to Los Angeles to San Francisco.
Telegraph Completed:
October 24, 1861. Official end of the Pony Express.
Financially, the owners spent $700,000 on the Pony Express and had a $200,000 deficit. The company failed to get the million dollar government contract because of political pressures and the outbreak of the Civil War.
Improved communication between east and west. Proved the central route could be traveled all winter. Supported the central route for the transcontinental railroad. Kept communication open to California at the beginning of the Civil War. Provided the fastest communication between east and west until the telegraph. Captured the hearts and the imagination of people all over the world.
One mochila lost and one rider killed. Location, date and names have not been verified.

Author: The American West Website
Source: The Museum of the American West an others
Educational Material/Non Commercial
No Wyoming Map

Indian Reservations and Federal Lands in Wyoming

??? Simpson's Hollow,WY
N.42.01.080 W.109.35.443

Picture 1

Picture 2
No Wyoming Map

Indian Reservations and Federal Lands in Wyoming

??? Ferry Loward, WY
N.42.52.801 W.109.48.457

Picture 1

Picture 2
Wyoming Map

Indian Reservations and Federal Lands in Wyoming


7:00PM Arriving in Roosevelt, Utah
Double Occupancy Room

Free Accommodations/Already Booked in your Home:

Free High Speed Internet
Continental Breakfast


  Support Readings:

U.S. History, The West Timeline
Utah History and Ute History Timeline

Wyoming History Timeline
Plains Indians History Timeline
South Dakota History Timeline
Nebraska History Timeline
Core Curriculum
Suggested Primary Source:
Indian Affairs Laws and Treaties

If you need information about the UB-TAH the address is: 

UB-TAH, USU Uintah Basin Extension
987 East Lagoon (124-9)
Roosevelt, Utah 84066
E-Mail: Antonio Arce, Project Coordinator
Phone: (435) 722-1736

If you would like to collaborate in the development of this site and be an important part of the Uintah Basin Teaching American History Project (UB-TAH,) please contact us or call us (435) 722-1736

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