Before Columbus - Early Americans (in construction/subject to corrections)
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Year BC



Year BC


28,000 Stone Age residents left cave carving, stone tools, and skeletons in France, North Africa, and other parts of the Ancient World   28,000 Earliest known date inhabitants on California's coastline. California's early settlers left hearth charcoal on Santa Rosa Island, off the coast of California.
American Indian Creation Stories
(North America)
The Ute Creation Story
The Creation Story in the Popol Vuh
(Maya Story)
Toltec Creation Story

The Aztec Creation Story
Inca Creation Story
24000 Cremation funerary rites in Australia   27,000 Settlement in Western Alaska  
      25,000 Settlement in New Mexico  
16,000 The first Art in the painted caves of Lascaux, France        
15,000 The hall of bison in caves in Altamira, Spain   13,500* Monte Verde Paleo-Indian site in Southern Chile
Monte Verde Debate (*13,500 Years ago)

Monte Verde Fiedel's Confusion and Misrepresentation
      12,000 Paleo-Indians settled in all the unglaciated corners of both North and South America  
      11,000* Colorado settled.
Clovis Culture in North America (*11,000 Years ago)
10000 First pottery in Japan   10,000 Sangus Massachusetts settled. Mexico City settled. The Final Ice Age  
9,000 In the Valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers permanent settlements began in the area later called Mesopotamia   9,000* Folsom Culture in North America
Beginnings of Agriculture in Mexico. Central Mexico and Valley of Tehuacan. Settlement sites throughout North America (*9,000 Years ago)
8,000 World population estimated at 5 million of people   7000 Extreme changes in North American Climate and animal life  
6000 in Iran and Soviet Tukestan people lived in permanent settlements
Rice cultivation in China
First settlement in Crete, Europe
  6000 Settlement sites of this period in North America show a great variety of tools, trade goods, and burial relics  
      5500 Southern California Settled  
5000 Events dating back in this period appeared on the Egyptian Calendar. Earliest Cities in Mesopotamia   5000 First Cultivation of Maize in Tehuacan Valley in Central Mexico
Arizona and New Mexico Settled
  4500 First Mounds built along lower Mississippi. Watson Brake Settled near Monroe, Louisiana
Northern California Settled
4400 Horse domesticated in the Old World. 4000 Settlement at Kodiak Island, Alaska
Hunters built permanent base camps at the location known as the Koster site Illinois
Chorotega Culture in Central America?
3500 Sumerian settled on the site of the city of Babylon and developed a phonetic Alphabet.
Bronze made for first time.
Paper made from Papyrus reed.
Hieroglyph developed in Egypt
  3372 The earliest date of the Mayan calendar, on which all later Mayan dates were based. The Maya used several calendars simultaneously. One of them called the "long count", is a continuous record of days from a zero date that correlates to Aug. 13, 3114 BC, and is more precise than the Julian calendar revised in Europe in 1582.  
3000 The end of prehistory and the beginning of recorded history.
Astronomical Observations in Egypt.
Extensive irrigation works developed along the Nile in Egypt
First medical treatise
First Chariots using the horse
Civilization begins around the Indus Valley
  3000 Tehuacan Valley in Mexico Occupied. Horticulture developed with extensive cultivation of maize, beans, chili, and squashes. Construction of large buildings
Southern California settled.
Arizona and New Mexico horticulture
The Caral Culture in the coast of Peru. Caral is the oldest civilization in the Americas, having developed almost simultaneously with the civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, India and China.
2600 Pyramid of Gizeh in Egypt, followed by the great pyramid of Cheops   2600 Southeast of U.S. settlements were located largely in river valleys and based on fishing
In Peru, South America, there is evidence that cotton was cultivated
      2500 The highland villages of the people called the Olmecs in Mexico begins.  Irrigation and terracing
"Archaic" Indians developed sophisticated fishing techniques in Boston, Massachusetts.
2180 End of the Akkadian civilization in Mesopotamia
Hsia Dynasty began in China
2060 Sumerian renaissance and the Dinasty of Ur. Babylonian mathematics reached its highest level   2000 The ancestor of modern Inuit moved as far east as Greenland and established settlements.
The first long term settlements at Poverty Point, Louisiana
1728 Hammurabi king of Babylon, reunited the kingdom. Hammurabi's Code
The Shang Dynasty in China replaced the Hia Dynasty
1500 In Egypt, priest under Akhenaten wrote a new religion
Greek victorious at Troy.
  1500 Georgia and Florida Indian's pottery techniques improved to the production of fine fired earthenware ceramics.
Poverty Point mounds expanded in Louisiana.  The first of the great Mississippian Culture
1200  Collapse of Assyria
The Israelites established in Palestine
  1200 Olmec Civilization in Mexico.  Centers at Chalcatzinango and La Venta  
753 Traditional date for the founding of Rome
Homer, a Greek poet/singer wrote down his best song/poems the Iliad and the Odyssey
The Olympic Games stared in Greece in 776
  750 Temple mounds built in Ohio Valley by the Adena Hopewell people. They were a sophisticated culture with elaborately constructed ceremonial centers and extraordinary trade network
The Paracas Culture in Peru begins
The Chavin Culture arose in the highlands of Peru
650 Assyrians conquered Babylon
Empire of Japan established
559 Cyrus, the Great, a Persian king conquered Babylon
Confucius in China
460 Pericles in Athens. Golden Age of Greece. Greek philosophers flourish
Hippocrates, father of the Medicine
  400 End of the Olmec Civilization by unknown reasons
The Tiahuanacu Culture arose in the highlands of Bolivia. Eventually the city will have 50,000 inhabitants
334 Alexander the Great in Greece   300 Hohokam Culture began farming in the Gila and Salt Valleys of what is now Arizona. They were an horticulturalist society that developed a very complex irrigation system  
200 Roman Empire at its height.   200 The Moche Culture in South America (More Links)  
100 The Dead Sea Scrolls store in caves (100 BC 100 AD)   100 The Serpent mound built by the Adena Hopewell Indians near the town of Locust Grove, Ohio. Other great early Mississippian sites are at Etowah, Georgia; Spiro, Oklahoma; and Moundville, Alabama  
46 Julius Cesar introduced the Julian Calendar        
1 Jesus Christ born in Judea, an outer province of the Roman Empire.
World population estimated at 300 million
  1 City of Teotihuacan rose to prominence in the Mexico basin. The pyramids of Teotihuacan were among the biggest in America.  Its leaders had a sophisticated astronomical observatory. (More links)
The Hohokam Culture moved to sites along the Salt River in Arizona and began an irrigation system that is the basis of modern-day Phoenix
La Milpa City, a Mayan City is built
33 Death of Jesus Christ   2 El Mirador in Northern Guatemala  
64 Rebellion in Rome. Emperor Nero begins persecution of Christians   50 The Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacan begins to be built
The City of Monte Alban in Oaxaca, Mexico increased in size an power
70 Revolt of the Jews in Judea against Rome. Jerusalem destroyed        
100 By the end of the first century every major city in the Roman Empire had a Christian Church   100 People from Mesoamerica migrated north along several different routes and took up permanent residence in the Four Corners area of the Colorado Plateau (Utah, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona).
The Pyramid of the Moon in Teotihuacan is built around 150 AC
180 Death of Marcus Aurelius and the begin of the collapse of Roman economic and political system   250 The Nazca Culture on the coast of Peru  
285 The Roman Empire divided in two with two capitals.   292 Emergence of the classic Maya Culture in the Yucatan lowlands of southern Mexico and Guatemala. Tikal Mayan City  
312 Emperor Constantine   300 Mayan Culture Classic Period start (More links)
Rapa Nui, Eastern Island Culture begins in the South Pacific
The Chibcha Culture in Colombia achieved their height
313 Edict of Milan restored to all Christians throughout the Roman Empire freedom of workship        
325 Council of Nicea.  Christianity became the official religion of the Roman empire.   350 The Hohokam Culture settled in several sites along the Gila and Salt River drainage in Central Arizona.  
382 Barbarian hordes from the Black Sea region and Mongols from Asian steppes invaded Roman Empire from the Mediterranean to as far as Britain        
393 The Olympic Games in Greece were abolished by the Roman Emperor Theodocius I   400 The early Anasazi Culture emerged in Northern Arizona and the Four Corners Area. The Anasazi sites all had similar characteristics.  They cultivated maize, beans and cotton.
Fremont Culture in Utah area
The Zapotec Culture in Monte Alban, Oaxaca, Mexico
476 The official date of the end of the Roman Empire   500 The Hohokam Culture introduced ball courts, large oval courts similar to those found in Mesoamerica, for the playing of a game with a rubber ball  
590 Pope Gregory the Great the most influential person in Europe   590 Cholula in the fertile Puebla-Tlaxcala valley thrives. Its Great Pyramid, Tlachihualtépetl ("man-made mountain"), is enlarged; stairs on all four sides allow access to the summit. Subsequent enlargements will make it the largest, continuously used structure in ancient America (Pyramid of Cholula).  
603 First recorded mention of London as a city   600 First settlers believed to have settled on the Red River site of Spiro, Oklahoma
The Moche Culture ends
The Huari Culture begins in Peru
702 In Japan the first penal and civil code was promulgated   700 Tetihuacan, Mexico at its zenith and the sixth largest city in the world. population of 200,000 inhabitants
The Bonampak site in Chiapas, Mexico, has frescoes painted on the stucco walls of Structure I from this time. They depict war, sacrifice and celebration. The name glyph for Shield Jaguar II, king of nearby Yaxchilan, was recognized.
722 In China a 233-foot Buddha was built in Sichuan province. In 2002 a $30 million restoration project was undertaken   750 Teotihuacan invaded and reduced to rubble. It was burned, deserted and its people scattered.
The Hohokam Culture expanded their Culture from Central Arizona up the Verde and Agua Fria Rivers as far North as Flagstaff
Expansion of geometric patterns of mounds at Moundville, Alabama
The Nazca Culture declined
800 Pope Leo II crowned Charlemagne a German, king of the barbarian Franks, emperor of the new holy Empire   800 Tula became the new capital of the Toltec Culture in Mexico. Population 50,000 inhabitants
Mogollon Culture in Arizona began producing Mimbres pottery
828 Jan 28, Charlemagne (71), German Emperor, Holy Roman Emperor (800-814), died. In 1968 Jacques Boussard authored “The Civilisation of Charlemagne.”   825 Athabascan people from Alaska migrated into the Pacific Northwest and Southwest.  
900 The east coast of Africa was impacted by trade and Arab, Persian and Indian traders mixed with the indigenous Bantu. Many of the coastal Bantu adopted Islam and the Arabic word Swahili, meaning "people of the shore," to describe themselves.   900 The center of the Mississippian Culture at its peak. Population 40,000 inhabitants. Cahokia City.
End of the Mayan Classic period
Mixtec Culture in Oaxaca Mexico
912 Abd al Rahman III, Umayyad caliph in Spain, purchased Scandinavian, African and German slaves to serve in his forces. At this time Cordoba was western Europe's largest city with a population of 200,000 people.   919 Roof beams were cut for Pueblo Bonito. Considered the highest expression of American Indian Architecture.  Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico  
970 The Sung (Song) dynasty ruled over China. It was from this period that the Japanese tea ceremony originated; the ritual was developed for a tranquility of mind. Since this period mountainous looking rocks have been prized as objects of contemplation. Porcelain from this period is particularly beautiful   987 The god Quetzalcoatl was banished from Tula
The City of Chanchan (Chimu Culture) arose on the coast of Peru.
Chancay Culture in Peru?
The Tiahuanacu Culture declined in Bolivia
The Toltec people took over the city of Chichen Itza, Mexico
The Viking Leif Erickson reached North America
1066 William of Normandy invaded England and Conquered King Harold at the Battle of Hastings.   1073 Beginning of the construction of pueblos at Mesa Verde in Southwestern Colorado
Rapa-Nui, Eastern Island Culture deforestation and declined
1095 First Crusade   1100 Mesa Verde at its height. The settlement in Southern Colorado reached its largest population
Tula was overrun by invaders, probably Chichimecs raiders from the North, and its temples and palaces burned to the ground
1114 Second Crusade   1120 Chaco Canyon people built and elaborated road system. Over 500 miles of road carved into rock in order to link outlying communities to the central site of Pueblo Bonito, New Mexico  
      1125 Hohokam Culture at its height. They built hundred of miles of canals to irrigate their fields of maize, beans, squash and cotton.  
      1132 City of Texcoco founded in Mexico Valley.  
1189 The Third Crusade. The third of a series of papal-inspired wars to reclaim the Holy Land from the infidels   1197 The Inca Empire arose from the highlands of Peru. Manco Capac his first ruler. City of Cuzco  
1198 Fourth Crusade   1200 Construction of the Great House at Casa Grande, Arizona  
1204 Constantinople sacked by the Christians Crusades, the first capture of Constantinople in history and the most violent looting of the city        
1215 Sixth Crusade
Magna Carta, 1215
  1225 West Mexican metalworkers produce bells, rings, and tweezers in copper-tin bronze and copper arsenic bronze.  
1245 From 1245 to 1300: The Seventh, Eight and Nine Crusade
Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, 1253
  1250 Cholula to the east of the Basin of Mexico is conquered by the northern Tolteca.  Chichimeca people and a new ceremonial precinct is built around the Pyramid of Quetzalcoátl. Cholula's Great Pyramid was the focal point of religious activity for over a thousand years.  
1300 Otoman Empire defend their lands from the Crusades
  1300 American Indian population in North and Central America reached its peak. The population in Mexico was believed to be over 30 million; of North America between 12 and 15 million; and South America, over 20 million.
The Delaware migrated from West to East.
The Mississippians withdrew southward.
Onondaga culture in what is now upstate New York
Apachean people began break into separate tribes of Navajo and Apache.
Ica-Chincha Culture flourished in Southern Peru
      1325 The traditional date for the founding of the Aztec City of Tenochtitlan in the Valley of Mexico.  The city was founded in the middle of Lake Texcoco.  
1332 The height of the Mandingo Empire in West Africa   1330 City of Tenochtitlan: Causeways built with canals.
The Aztecs governed by Tenpanecs
1347 First outbreak of the Bubonic Plague in Europe. Over 20 million Europeans died. One-third of the world population is believed to have died   1347 Tlatelolco, a companion city to Tenochtitlan, founded in Lake Texcoco. Causeways longer than 5 miles connected the cities with firm land  
1356 Ottoman Empire invades Europe   1390 Traditional founding date of the League of Haudenosaunee, known as the Iroquois Confederacy. The league was formed by the Seneca, Oneida, Onondaga, Mohawk, and Cayuga
Chimu Culture take over on Moche Territory in Peru
1400 Johann Gutenberg (Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg d.1468), was born in Mainz. He was the inventor of movable, metal type, a stamping mold for casting type, the alloy of lead, tin, and antimony for the cast letters, the printing press itself, and a printing ink with an oil base.
Italian Renaissance, ca 1400-1530
  1400 The population of the Mississippi River system began to decline
The Aztec city-state of Tenochtitlan arose as the prominent city in the Central Mexico basin dominating much older and more established cities
Tepanecs defeated. New ruler
1410 First translation of Ptolemy's Geography appeared in Toledo and revived the notion that earth was round   1400 Chimu Civilization in South America declined  
1419 Prince Henry of Portugal sent expeditions west to explore the Madeira Islands        
1420 Prince Henry the Navigator gathered cartographers, navigators and shipbuilders in a fortress in Sagres, Portugal, to invent navigation technology to reach India, China and the Americas.  He later sailed south of the Canary Islands to the great eastward curve of West Africa at Sierra Leone.  Although dubbed "Henry the Navigator" by English writers, he never embarked on the voyages of exploration he himself sponsored. Nevertheless, the prince helped advance European cartography and the accuracy of navigation tools as well as spurring maritime commerce.   1428 Aztec Triple Alliance (Texcoco and Tlapocan) . Izcoatl became ruler of the Aztecs and led the city-state of Tenochtitlan to great wealth and military power  
1431 Joan of arc burned at the stake in Rouen, France        
1432 Prince Henry of Portugal sent another expedition to the Azores   1437 Viracocha Inca Emperor in Tahuantinsuyo, Peru  
      1438 The height of Izcoatl's rule of the Aztecs and the revision of official Aztecs history to align the Aztecs with the Toltec tradition
Pachacuti Sapa Inca is born. He transformed the Kingdom of Cuzo in the Empire of Tahuantinsuyo that in three generation extended from Southern Colombia to Central Chile.
Sacsayhuamán & Machu Picchu are built in Peru
1441 Portugal began the slave trade from West Africa   1440 Itzcoatl's death. Tlacaelel remained as royal advisor to the new Aztec king Axyacatl.  
1450 Pope Nicholas V authorized the Portuguese to "attack, subject, and reduce to perpetual slavery..." in Africa   1452 Tenochtitlan declined by flood and famine  
1453 The end of the Hundred Years War between England and France        
1456 In Germany, Gutemberg, who introduced movable type into Europe, produced the first printed Bible   1458 Death of Axyacatl in the Aztec empire. Assumption of Moctezuma I as a ruler. he sent armies to conquer more lands  
      1469 Death of Moctezuma I  
1474 Queen Isabella succeeded to the throne of Castile in Spain. Five years later (1479) her husband Ferdinand succeeded to the throne of Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia   1471 Death of Emperor Pachacuti in Peru. Topa Inca assume as a ruler  
1478 Ferdinand and Isabella instituted the Spanish Inquisition, a quasi-religious and civil court, in coordination with the pope and the Spanish Catholic Church   1478 The two cities of Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco merge, becoming the most densely populated urban center in Mesoamerica. It covers an area of approximately five square miles.  
      1481 Death of Tlacaetl, the advisor if Aztecs ruler in Mexico. Military power of the Aztecs, 100,000 warriors  
1483 Christopher Columbus, an Italian sailor, traveled to the court of King of Portugal to request financing for an expedition to the west to reach India. His request is turned down   1482 A superbly sculpted monument, depicting the dismembered body of Coyolxauhqui, sister of the Aztec tribal and war god Huitzilopochtli, is placed at the foot of the stairway leading to his sanctuary at the Main Temple.  
1486 The Malleu Maleficarum, published in Germany by two Catholic priests. it described "step-by-step instruction on the arrest, torture, conviction and execution of witches"   1487 The Great Temple at Tenochtitlan dedicated. The Aztec Empire extended to Mayan lands  
1486 Franciscan Monks presented Columbus's request for financing to the Spanish court as second time. It was rejected   1490 The total number of inhabitants in the island city of Tenochtitlan-Tlatelolco may have reached 200,000 or more. The bulk of the urban population are workers, including craft specialists such as potters, goldsmiths, lapidaries, featherworkers, and stonemasons. They produce ceremonial art and luxury goods of the finest quality for use by Aztec nobles in temples and palaces. The most important commercial center of central Mexico is the great market of Tlatelolco.  
1492 Spain conquered Granada the last Morish stronghold in Spain.  It ended 700 years of war between Spain and the Islamic Moors.
The Spanish Inquisition expelled all the Moors, along with 200,000 Jews, and confiscated all their properties in Spain
Columbu's Project of westward route to India was presented a third time at court and approved. He was given the tittles of admiral and "governor of the territories to be discovered" and three ships.
  1492 The Inca Empire "Tahuantinsuyo" at its height ruled between 3-15 million inhabitants (Kroeber, 1939, sapper, 1925)
The Aztec Empire "Anahuac" at its height ruled between 6-19 million inhabitants
The Tainos of Bohio or Kiskeya (Hispaniola) Dominican Republic and Haiti and the Caribbean Island reached 600,000 to 3 million of inhabitants (Primary sources)
The total population of the Americas reached between 60-112 million of inhabitants with probably more than 1,000 languages spoken in North. Central, and South America.
Tribes in Eastern United States
Tribes in Western United States
Tribes in Alaska 
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Main Source:
Nies, J., Native American History, Ballantine Books; 1st edition (December 3, 1996)

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