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Uintah and Ouray Ute Indian Reservation, The Tribe Public Relations Information Handout, February 13, 2002, pp.4.
Source: Conetah, F.A., 1982, A History of the Northern Ute People, University of Utah Printing Services, SLC, Utah
Source: Jefferson J., Delaney R., Thompson G.,  1972, The Southern Utes, A Tribal History, University of Utah Printing Services, SLC, UT
Source: University of Texas Perry Castaneda Library Map Collection

UB-TAH received the support in this project from, Marilyn Hetzel, Ute Education Department Director, Venita Taveapont, Ute Tribe Education Department, Adam Martinez, Uintah River High, Gloria Thompson, Union High School, Mariah Cuch, Ute Tribe Newspaper, and Ramalda Guzman, Ute Tribal Member.

Disclaimer: All the pictures and materials are Educational Material/Non-Commercial

Before 1500's Story of the Creation: The Ute Creator is Senawahu, who made land for the use of the Indians. Ute Creation Story
Ute Land Area was about 225,000 sq. miles
(3-D Map A) (3-D Map B)
Ute's a Long Time Ago
(Lesson Plan).
Utah History and Ute History Dual Timeline
Archeological Map of the Southwest
Utah Places with Indian names
Ute Collection of Resources and Pictures
Utah Natives Picture Collection
1534 Alvaro Nuņez Caveza de Vaca Travel though out the Southwest. He and three more men where looking for Mexico.  One of them was an African slave called Estebanico (Map)
1538 Fray Juan Marcos de Niza and Estebanico with an small force, returned to the Southwest, searching for the Seven cities of Cibola.
1539-1543 Francisco Vazquez de Coronado lead and expedition of more than 1,300 men, 4 Franciscan monks and several slaves in search of the Seven Cities of Cibola. (Map)
1540 Lopez de Cardenas, an officer of Coronado, reached the Colorado River from the rim of the Grand Canyon
1600-1640 First contact with Spaniards (Introduction to the Horse)
Early Cartography of the Southwest
1604 An Exploratory expedition sent by Juan de Oņate met an Indian (Southern Paiute?)
1607 Between 1607 and 1776, at least 175 treaties were signed between the British Empire and the Colonies with American Indian Tribes.
1638 First recorded conflict between the Spaniards and the Utes. Eighty "Utacas" were capture and taken to Santa Fe, New Mexico.
1649, Dec. 30 First Treaty with the Utes, "One of Peace and Amity"
1680 The Pueblo "Revolt" in New Mexico forced the Spaniards to abandon Santa Fe.  It is said that Ute participated in the Pueblo Revolt. (3-D: Map of Pueblo, Pueblo/North, Pueblo/Central, Pueblo/South)
1700 Achieved ascendancy among the other tribes; great powers horsemen (Juan Armando Neil said they were: "the bravest Indians that he had encountered in the New Spain."
1749 Leaders of three Ute groups, Don Thomas of the "Utas, Barrignton of the "Chaugaguas" ad Chicito of the "Moaches" agreed on a "peace" (alliance) with the Spaniards
1765 The Old Spanish Trail Juan Maria de Rivera explored the area from Santa Fe to the Gunnison River in Colorado. His purpose was to find a trail to reach California. The first to complete the circuit from Santa Fe to Los Angeles was Mexican trader Antonio Armijo in the winter of 1829-30. (Trail Map) (Trail Map 2)
1776 Escalante's Expedition through the Uintah Basin. The Fathers used two Ute guides that they named Silvestre and Joaquin. (More Links) Dominguez and Escalante Journal/Maps Collection
Miera and Pacheco, 1878
1786 Spanish Governor Juan Bautista de Anza arranged a a peace between the Comanche leader Ecueracapa and the Ute leaders Mora and Pinto
1787 Between 1787 and 1868, 371 treaties were signed between the U.S. and American Indian Tribes.
1804-1806 Lewis and Clark Expedition (Satellite Maps)
Westward Expansion of U.S. - Routes (Map from1791 to 1912)
Westward Expansion of U.S. - Regions (Map of Regions)
1806 Captain Zebulon Pike was sent to explore the Colorado Rockies. While camped in San Luis Valley, he and his men were arrested by Spanish soldiers and put in jail.
1822 Lechat, a Ute leader came to Santa Fe, New Mexico to propose trade with Spaniards
1823 Johnson vs. McIntosh Supreme Court Decision:  This case tested the validity of land sold by tribal chiefs to private persons in 1773 and 1775.  The court decided that Indian Tribes had no power to sell lands to anyone other than the federal government. The federal government, in turn, held title to the all land based upon the "doctrine of discovery."
1824-1844 Trappers seeks fur and trade in Ute Lands. Peter Skene Ogden from the Hudson's Bay Company, Jedediah Smith and Thomas Fizpatrick from the Rocky Mountain Fur Company (owned by William Ashley) and Independent trappers, such as Etienne Provost and Robidoux brothers who were traveling from Taos Pueblo.
1824 Ashley's expedition of the Uintah Basin
1826-1827 Opening of the Old Spanish Trail  (Trails Map) Ute lands of the Kapotas, Weeminuche, Tumpanawach, and Pah Vant (Map)
1830 Senator Theodore Frelinghuysen on the Removal Act, April 9, 1830.
David Crockett, a Tennessee legislator and U.S. congressman
also openly opposed to the Indian Removal (read pp. 143-144.)
Indian Removal Act, President Andrew Jackson (Eastern Tribes)
1830-1848 Ute levied "tax" on the Spanish Traders.  Ute traded animal pelts of beaver and otter, and tanned hides of elk, deer, mountain sheep, and buffalo for weapons, ammunition, blankets, utensils, and trinkets.
1831 Antoinne Robidoux opened a trading post in the Northern end of the Basin (More Links)
1831 Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia Decision: the State of Georgia passed and enacted policies that only limited the Cherokee Tribal sovereignty but also were unconstitutional in their view. The court proclaimed that that Indian were neither US citizens, nor independent nations, but rather were "domestic nations" whose relationship to the US "resembles that of a ward to his guardian."
1831 Worcester vs Georgia Court Decision: Samuel Austin Worcester, a religious missionary from Vermont who was working with Cherokee natives sued the State of Georgia which had arrested him, claiming that the State had no authority over him within the boundaries of the Cherokee Nation.  The court ruled in favor of Worcester, stating that state laws did not extend in Indian Country.  Indian tribes were under the protection of the federal government.
1833 Fort Kit Carson established near the present day Ouray Community
1837 Fort Uncomphagre established at confluence of Gunnison and Uncomphagre rivers, Northwestern Colorado. Also Fort Robidoux is established.
1840's The Oregon Trail (2,170 miles long) is started to be used. Marcus and Narcissa Whitman were the first Euroamericans to cross the Oregon Trail in covered wagon during 1836. The "Great Migration" started in 1843. Over the next 25 years, more than a half of million of people went West on the Trail (Trail Map)
1843 Lieutenant John Charles Freemont traveled trough Utah Ute lands, leading the first scientific exploration of the area
1844 Fort Robidoux is burned by Ute Indians
1847 Mormons arrived to Salt Lake City
Utah Places with Indian names
1848 The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ends the Mexican War and enlarges the U.S. territory to include Ute Lands. (More Links)
1849 Agent Calhoun negotiates a treaty with the Ute people at Abiqui, New Mexico
1849 March 1, 1849: First confrontation between the Ute and the Pioneers. "Battle Creek" in Pleasant Grove".

Captain Howard Stansbury of the U.S. Topographical Engineers was sent to begin a survey for a military post on the edge of the desert

Ute and Pioneer Confrontations, 1849-1853

1850 Mormon militia attacks a Ute group near Fort Utah. They laid seige to s a group of about seventy people lead by Big Elk and Ope-Carry. Ute and Pioneers Confrontation in Fort Utah on February 1850
1851 The Utah territorial Indian Agency was established by Congress.
1853-1854 Wakara (Walker) leads the Utah Utes in a series of raids on Mormon settlements, known as the Walker War
Walkara War 1 and Walkara War 2
1854 Peace was arranged by Brigham Young and Wakara at Chicken Creek in May 1854. Wakara died in January 1855
1855 Kapota and Moache were force to sign peace treaties (never ratified)
1856 Indian Agent Gallard Hurt established Indian farms at the Corn Creek, Tewlve Mile Creek, and Spanish Fork. (More Links)
1857 Mountain Meadows Massacre
1858 Federal Troops arrive in Utah to resolve rising tensions between Mormons and the United States government. Indian Agent Jacob Forney accompanies the troops.
1859 Gold is discovered in Pikes Peak area
1860's Major John Wesley Powell began a survey of Ute lands which would becom part of the U.S. Geological Survey.
1861 Brigham Young sent a small party to explore the basin for possible settlement. They reported "that all that section of country lying between the Wasatch Mountains and the eastern boundary of the territory, and south of Green River country, was one vast contiguity of waste and measurably valueless. (Deseret News, Sep 25, 1861)"
1861 President Lincoln sets Uintah Valley aside as a Ute Reservation (Satellite Map)
1863 Tumpanawach, Pah-vant, Parianuche, and Yamparika Utes meet in central Utah, Black Hawk leads series of raids known as the Black Hawk Wars of Utah.
1863 John Nicolay, secretary to President Lincoln was sent west to head a commission to deal with the Utes.  One tribe got its territory described in the process.
1863 The Taviwach leaders signed a treaty relinquishing the Colorado territory and with its mineral rights (ratified March 25, 1864).  This followed skirmishes between the Taviwach band and intruding prospectors in the Middle Park area.
1864 Feb. 1 Indian commissioners ordered to collect and remove Indians.
1864 May 5 Congress ratifies an executive order which set aside the Uintah Valley Reservation as proposed (1861).
1864 Mormons ask for the removal of the Utes to the Sanpete and Uintah Valley.
1864 At Sand Creek on November 29, 1864, John Chivington led the Colorado Volunteers in a dawn attack on Black Kettle and his band, who had been told they would be safe on this desolate reservation. Two hundred Cheyenne men, women and children were slaughtered, and their corpses often grotesquely mutilated. Native's report. (3-D:Map of the Sand Creek Massacre)
1865 Treaty between U.S. and the Ute Tribes in Utah in June 8, 1865
Treaty between U.S. and the "Weber Ute Indians in October, 1865
1865-1868 Black Hawk War.
Black Hawk 1
and Black Hawk 2
1866 Treaty between U.S. and the Uintah and Yampa Utes in August 29, 1866
Circleville residents arrest and kill all the adult Utes at a Ute camp near Circleville.
1867 Most of Uintah Utes were removed to Uintah Valley.
1868, Mar 2 A treaty was signed by the Uncompahgre.
1868 Whiterocks Agency was established on the Uintah Reservation.  Also a treaty established two other agencies, the Colorado Ute People had one at Whiteriver, and another at Rio de Los Pinos (ratified July 25, 1868).
1868 Chief Black Kettle and a Southern Cheyenne peaceful village at Washita was attacked by the 7th U.S. Cavalry, under Lt. Col. George A. Custer, just before dawn on November 27, 1868 during the era of the Plains and Indian Wars. Custer's Report, Native's Report
(3:D Map of the Washita)
1870 Chief Black Hawk died.
1871-1875 The Photographs of John Hillers, who accompanied Powell during 1871-75 are important primary sources of the area at that time
1872 The Secretary of the Interior convinces Congress to draw up a new treaty that had no discussion with Indians before hand.  The Indians defeated it.
1873 The Brunot Agreement deprives the Ute people of San Juan Mountain land and gold deposits (ratified April 29, 1894).
1873 U.S. government officials appoint Ouray as Head Chief of the Utes.
1876 On June 25, 1876, federal troops led by Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer and a band of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians confronted in a battle known as Battle at the Little Bighorn River, Montana. The U.S. government had ordered the northern Plains tribes to return to designated reservations and had sent troops under Gen. Alfred H. Terry to enforce the order. Terry hoped to surround an Indian encampment at the mouth of the Little Bighorn, but a party of some 200 soldiers led by Custer launched an early attack and was slaughtered. Government troops subsequently flooded into the area and forced the Indians to surrender. (3-D Map, The Battle of Little Big Horn)
1877 The 1877 flight of the Nez Perce from their homelands while pursued by U.S. Army Generals Howard, Sturgis and Miles, is one of the most fascinating and amazing events in Western U.S. History. Finally, Chief Joseph's camp was captured in the Battle of Bear Paw, a few miles South of Canada. Chief Joseph's Speeches. (3-D Maps: Nez Perce's Trail, The Battle of Bear Paw)
1878 Meeker became agent at Whiteriver agency.
1879 Agent Nathan Meeker is killed by Yamparika Utes.
1879 As a result of the Meeker incident, officials force the Colorado Utes to sign an agreement which removes the Yamparika and Taviwach Utes to Utah (ratified June 15, 1880).
1880, Mar 6 Treaty signed by the Indians.
1880, June 15 Treaty signed by congress for Indian removal from Colorado.
1880, Aug 24 Death of Ouray.
1880-1891 Ghost Dance Movement
1881 Yamparika Utes are moved to the Uintah Reservation in Utah.
1882 Act of January 5, 1882--Uncompahgre Reservation
1885 Miners found Gilsonite--significance--only deposit in U.S.
1886 Uintah and Ouray agencies consolidate.
1887 President Cleveland establishes the Fort Duchesne Military reservation near the Agency. (More Links)
1887 Congress passes the Dawes Act, or the Allotment Act. (More Links)
Allotment Act or Dawes Act, February 8, 1887 (pdf.)
1887 Act provides for surveys and allotments on the reservations.
1890 Ouray Boarding School opens at Randlett, then called Leland. (Boarding School Pictures)
1897 A small group of Uncompahgre, Uintah, and Whiteriver (Yamparika) Utes received Allotments.
1897 Posse attacks Utes camped on the Snake River in Colorado
1898 Uintah and Whiteriver Utes sell land to the Uncompahgre Utes.
1898 Allotments made on the Uintah Reservation as Mormon settlers rush into area. (More Links)
1902 Congressional hearings on Uintah reservation allotments.
1905 President Theodore Roosevelt withdrew 1,100,000 acres from the Utes to create the Uinta National Forest Reserve.
Opening of the Uintah Reservation to Homestead Claims 1
Opening of the Uintah Reservation to Homestead Claims 2
1909 By right of "Eminent Domain" the Strawberry Valley Reclamation Project appropriate 56,000 acres of land.
1918 Native American Church - This Indian church was organized in Oklahoma to combine an ancient Indian practice - the use of peyote - with Christian beliefs of morality and self-respect. The Church prohibits alcohol, requires monogamy and family responsibility, and promotes hard work. By 1923, 14 states had outlawed the use of peyote and in 1940, the Navajo tribal council banned it from the reservation. In 1944, the Native American Church of the United States was incorporated. Today, the Church continues to play an important role in the lives of many Indian people
1924 Indian Citizenship Act passed.
However, voting procedures were delegated to the states, and  some states misused this power well into the 1920 to continue to deny Native Americans the right to vote. Even as late as 1962, New Mexico still overtly prohibited Native Americans from voting.
1928 The Meriam Report described the challenging conditions on Indian Reservations and reforms were enacted.
Indian Education Report
1930's During the Great Depression the Ute Business Committee bought land from bankrupted white farmers
1931 Ration system stopped.
1933-1934 Taylor Grazing Act Agency withdrew 429,000 acres from the Uncompahgre Reservation and placed in the public domain.
1934 Indian Reorganization Act 1934 (pdf.)
Indian Reorganization Act and Indian New Deal (pdf.)
1937-1938 Utah Utes adopted the Wheeler-Howard Reorganization Act of 1934; wrote a Constitution and By-laws; established a Tribal Business Committee.
Ute Constitution

Ute Business Council By Laws
1939 Utes of Colorado and Utah brought suits against the government payment on 4,404,000 acres of surface and subsurface land, including the territory embraced within the Rangely Oil Field. (Satellite Map)
1946 The Indian Claim Commission was established, it created a special system for the Indians to sue the federal government
1957 Termination Policy
Senator Watkins on Termination Policy, May 1957
Secretary of Interior Seaton on Termination Policy, September 1958
1957 Utah disenfranchised Indian voters by claiming that Indians residing on reservations did not qualify as residents of the state, despite the 1881 Supreme Court decision to the contrary. This statute stood until 1957 when, under threat of reversal by Supreme Court, the state legislature abolished it.
1969 Report: Indian Education: A National Tragedy - A National Challenge (Kennedy Report)
1969 "Indians of All Tribes" occupation of Alcatraz - A group of young Indians seized the abandoned Alcatraz Island in the San Francisco harbor. They issued a "Proclamation to the Great White Father" in which they stated their claim that Alcatraz was suitable as an Indian Reservation and thus, should be converted into an Indian educational and cultural center. The Indians of All Tribes continued to occupy  Alcatraz (pictures) until June, 1971.  More links: Alcatraz by Sthepanie Rosa (Paper)
1970 Nixon's "Special Message on Indian Affairs" - President Nixon delivered a speech to Congress which denounced past federal policies, formally ended the termination policy, and called for a new era of self-determination for Indian peoples. More links: Self-Determination Act Report 1999
1970's Self-Determination Policy, President Johnson 1968
Self-Determination Policy, President Nixon, 1970
1972 Trail of Broken Treaties - "Over 500 Indian activists traveled across the United States to Washington, DC where they planned to meet with BIA officials and to deliver a 20-point proposal for revamping the BIA and establishing a government commission to review treaty violations. When guards at the BIA informed the tribal members that Bureau officials would not meet with them and threatened forcible removal from the premises, the activists began a week-long siege of the BIA building. The BIA finally agreed to review the 20 demands and to provide funds to transport the activists back to their home.
Indian Education Act - This Congressional Act established funding for special bilingual and bicultural programs, culturally relevant teaching materials, and appropriate training and hiring of counselors. It also created an Office of Indian Education in the U.S. Department of Education." 1
1973 Wounded Knee Occupation - "At the Pine Ridge Reservation of the Oglala Sioux in South Dakota, trouble had been brewing between the Indian activists that supported AIM, and tribal leaders who had the support of the BIA. After a violent confrontation in 1972, tribal chair Richard Wilson condemned AIM and banned it from the reservation. In February 1973, AIM leaders led by Russell Means and about 200 activists who were supported by some Oglala traditional leaders took over the village of Wounded Knee, announced the creation of the Oglala Sioux Nation, declared themselves independent from the United States, and defined their national boundaries as those determined by the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie. The siege lasted 71 days, during which time federal marshals, FBI agents, and armored vehicles surrounded the village. AIM members finally agreed to end their occupation under one condition - that the government convene a full investigation into their demands and grievances."1
1975 Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act - "This Congressional Act recognized the obligation of the U.S. to provide for maximum participation by American Indians in Federal services to and programs in Indian communities. It also established a goal to provide education and services to permit Indian children to achieve, and declared a commitment to maintain the Federal government's continuing trust relationship, and responsibility to, individual Indians and tribes."1
1978 American Indian Religious Freedom Act - "This Congressional Act promised to "protect and preserve for American Indians their inherent right of freedom to believe, express, and exercise" traditional religions, "including but not limited to access to sites, use and possession of sacred objects, and the freedom to worship through ceremonial and traditional rites." Although the enactment seemed to recognize the importance of traditional Indian religious practices, it contained no enforcement provisions."1
Santa Clara v. Martinez Supreme Court Decision
US v. Wheeler Supreme Court Decision
1980 United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians - U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Sioux Indians were entitled to an award of $17.5 million, plus 5% interest per year since 1877, totaling about $106 million in compensation for the unjust taking of the Black Hills and in direct contravention of the Treaty of Fort Laramie. The Sioux have refused to take the money and sits in a trust fund in Washington, collecting interest
1990 Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act - This Congressional Act required all institutions that receive federal funds to inventory their collections of Indian human remains and artifacts, make their lists available to Indian tribes, and return any items requested by the tribes
1990 Native American Language Act: The congress passed a policy to "preserve, protect, and promote the rights and freedom of Native Americans to use, practice and develop Native American languages."
1993 Hagen v. Utah (92-6281), 510 U.S. 399 (1994).
Support link: Indian Country Legal Definition
1996 National American Indian Heritage Month - President Clinton declared November of each year to be National American Indian Heritage Month
1999 Shannon County, South Dakota, home of the Oglala Lakota on Pine Ridge Reservation is identified as the poorest place in the United States
Self-Determination Policy Report
2006 Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation Map

After visiting this Ute Tribe History Timeline webpage, would you please, take 10 minutes of your time and help us to know how we can better serve you and your students by completing the following survey? THANK YOU!

Uintah and Ouray Ute Indian Reservation, The Tribe Public Relations
Information Handout, February 13, 2002, pp.4.
Conetah, F.A., 1982, A History of the Northern Ute People, University of Utah Printing Services, SLC, Utah
Legends of America: http://www.legendsofamerica.com/NA-NativeAmericans.html, retrieved on February 27, 2007
The American Indian Vote: http://democrats.senate.gov/dpc/dpc-new.cfm?doc_name=sr-108-2-283#foot6, retrieved on March 21, 2007
Rockwell, W., 2006, The Ute a Forgotten People, Western Reflections Publishing Company, Montrose, Co
Simmons, V.M., 2000, The Ute Indians of Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico, University Pres of Colorado, Boulder, CO
Pettit, J., 1990, Utes, The Mountain People, Johnson Books, CO
Decker, P.R., 2004,  The Utes Must Go, Fulcrum Publishing, Golden, CO
 PBS The West - Website resources

More Resources:

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